SIN 3 and 4 (Bad Friendships and The Eyeless)

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The camaraderie remained. We were a pair of lonely, earnest, sidelined brains; writing as and when we could; bobbing on the millions-strong sea of self-obsessed insomniac lights that made up London. By , however, things were changing. Vaughan, meanwhile, was shifting focus. Coyote and slapstick.

We gradually, blamelessly drifted in our different directions, birthday meetings eventually yielding to radio silence. Vaughan out and about…. Vaughan was glad to hear from me, and we were talking on and off up until the month that he died; but we never met face-to-face again. There were various reasons for this. Later on, these roadblocks even come to affect what he was capable of doing. On top of that, there were hauntings: tormenting bits of his past that circled like ghostly sharks and regularly savaged him. Often he preferred to be alone, ensconsced at home, safely insulated behind phones and wires — even while friendships remained central to his existence.

Despite his troubles, Vaughan soldiered on and, in many respects, achieved more than many of the unencumbered. Yet, metaphorically and literally, his illnesses and challenges were taking pieces out of him and eroding his life. Like many of my own writing at the time, these reviews betray many of the flaws, pretensions, awkwardnesses and quick judgements of writing by people not yet out of their twenties, yet also not quite on the ball as regards youth cool whether spontaneous or studied , nor knowing which instinctive steps to take in order to pass themselves off as tastemakers.

Tart, salty, Anglo-Germanic; sometimes surprisingly coy or camp; clearly in love with his subject, and only partially covering up his enthusiasm with that deflecting humour and that peanut-gallery sarcasm. It was right for the zine. It keeps those characteristics now; and Vaughan was, in those early years, an integral part of that spirit. Goodbye, Vaughanie. You never knew how much people were going to miss you.

Just so that I can invite you to write something about it. Sleep well, you lovely fraud; you wise, spiky friend. Tags: A. Joy Division bass rumbles, spindly single-note synths, buzzingly active electronic drums. Yet despite the timewarp, this is no Xerox copy of those years. Struck Like Jacob Marley despite the Dickensian title, a highly contemporary standout does nothing to ease the chill.

Meanwhile, the sonic adventures just keep on coming. Fracture Track is a mesmerising and bloody assault on the Eyeless sound. A violently struck, hypnotic rhythm guitar riff is blasted on all sides by discordant drones and buzzes: there are no drums, yet it sounds huge, and Martyn Bates pushes out a harsh-edged, ferocious vocal.

The vocals and spartan folk acoustics take place up close, whilst the unsettling ambience — provided mainly by startlingly severe treatment and distortion of electric guitars and other electrical interferences — scares the life out of you in the background. Gothic folk at its best. And trip-hop? Well, OK, nearly. Even here, though, the second part of the track becomes subject to the unsettling aural sculptures of pervasive otherworldly drones, sonic interferences and sinister electronic pulses. Challenging, but ultimately beautiful when viewed in the harshest of frosts. Since unexpectedly bursting back into life in , Eyeless In Gaza have been immensely prolific.

Eyeless In Gaza online:. Much of Europe has been in on their greatness for years. Or something. The matured Eyeless In Gaza are now reinventing the brand of avant-folk song first heard on their Drumming The Beating Heart album over a decade ago. Cueva describes a cave with a horizontal, walk -in entrance Because of the large number of eyeless-characin caves now known, it is con venient for purposes of discussion to group them according to their location.

The Yerbaniz Caves include those three associated with west-trending drainages north of the Sabinos caves and west of Highway The Chama! Caves include those two located in the southern, low-lying part of the Sierra de Guatemala just north of the town of Chama!

It is well known as the cave where the first eyeless-characin fishes were discovered, and it remains the only characin cave to have had a widely dis tributed, detailed description Bridges, ; Breder, This is an ironic and unfortunate situation because a good argument may be made that La Cueva Chica is the most atypical of all of the eyeless-characin caves. Its peculiar features have biased many studies of the fishes. In itself, the cave presents some interesting problems worthy of study, but with regard to the general problem of cave-chara cin evolution in the area, the existence of La Cueva Chica is essentially im material.

The name, meaning little cave, is used by the local populace to contrast to a nearby, larger, dry cave, La Cueva Grande. The original discovery of the cave and the initial fish collection from it were made about 1 November Hubbs and Innes, by Sr. This letter is interesting as a his torical document and in demonstrating the emotional effect that caves and cave animals frequently have on people biologists not excluded , which, in turn, often biases interpretative judgment if not the mere recollection of simple observa tions. Translated excerpts from this letter are given by Hubbs and Innes and by Jordan The fact that these two translations do not bear much resemblance to each other alters little the point being made La Cueva Chica was studied by the well-known New York Aquarium expedi tion of Breder and associates in Results of this expedition are detailed pri marily by Bridges and Breder As a part of those studies, the cave was surveyed and the plan and profile were included in each of the two preceding papers.

Although a transit purportedly was used in the survey, Breder's plan is but an approximation and the profile is distorted. The cave is comprised of a main passage, in which are located the waters inhabited by the fishes, and four smaller side passages, which do not contain water. The small entrance 1. From the entrance, the main passage trends SSW for a total distance of about meters.

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In a step-wise fashion, the passage continually pitches downward The first permanent waters are encountered slightly more than 91 meters from the entrance. At Pool II, the passage bends slightly, continuing almost due south. Beyond Pool II and for a distance of about 50 meters, water cascades over a series of rimstone dams forming several small pools. Above these pools, there is a dome housing a moderate-sized bat colony "Minor Bat Roost" of Breder' s map.

Water moving through these pools next falls over a 2-meter drop not 25 feet acco rding to Breder's survey into Pool III. This "pool" is better de scribed as a stream segment about Water from Pool III flows down a steep, 1. Water then passes down another slop ing drop into Pool IV, which lies 18 meters beneath the entrance. The cave ends at this pool. The "end" of the cave is evidently a siphon point where ceiling dis appears into th e water. Most available s urf aces a re guano covered for a great distance in the terminal part of the cave. Bridges adequately pictured this portion of the cave as "a nightmare of slime and the stench of bats.

Early, it was ingrained in the literature that an unusual temperature situation prevailed in La Cueva Chica and this idea probably has not yet been dispelled adequately. The temperature of Cueva Chica waters ranges between about 24 and 27 C from data of Bonet, ; Osorio Tafall, ; our data. Water tem perature s in other caves of the Sierra de El Abra are comparable, although con siderable variation results from differences in particular structure among the caves.

Breder had a poor understanding of the cave environment as revealed by his statement: "The caves which they [Astyanax] inhabit are warm, an un usual circumstance, because caves are normally cold even in the tropics Bre der, b : He attributed the temperature of Cueva Chica's waters to "the proximity of the underlying magma" Breder, I 0. From this he extrapo lated the idea that "La Cueva Chica is able to support a population of tempera ture limited characins by virtue of nearby thermal waters which prevent the sub terranean waters from falling below a relatively high value" Breder, There are two faults here First, there is not the le as t thing "abnormal" about the temperature of the water in the cave.

All recorded temperatures are quite close to the a nnu a l m ea n surface temperature as Osorio Tafall pointed out in the statement: "en las cuevas de Ia region de Valles lo se apartara mucho de 26 o, que es Ia media anual de dicha zona. Second, although the Characidae is a family of generally warm-water fishes, it i s common knowledge that Astyanax mexicanus thrives in a wide tem perature range as its distribution indicates.

Hopefully, it may now be discounted that there are unusual temperature phenomena associated with this cave. A listing of the species and citations pertinent to them may be found in Reddell and Reddell and Mitchell lb. The subject of preci sely where the cave continues beyond the siphon at the end of Pool IV i s of importance because it is well known that the Cueva Chica fish population is a highly varied one being comprised of everything from typical eye less, depigmented, cave fishes to typical surface Astyanax.

Obviously, there is somewhere an input of surface fishes. This source of input has long been regarded as the Rio Tampa6n because of the proximity of that river to the terminal part of the cave. Breder a stated th a t the waters of Pool IV lay at the sa me eleva tion as the Rio Tampa6n This was a guess on his part, but a good one Our survey data show this pool to lie 18 meters below the entrance to the cave or at an elevation of 31 meters. Our calculated elevation of the Rio Tampa6n is Thus the terminal pool is but 2. We should stress that all of our measurements of water surface elevations in this area as well as elsewhere were made during the height of the dry season and are thus low water measurements unbiased by any local, temporary high water conditions.

Gresser credit for the idea. It was argued that the cave waters might either surface between the cave and the Rio Tampa6n or that they might enter the river directly as a subterranean spring in the streambed. Through the continuing series of papers on the eyeless characins by Breder and associates, there was such frequent mention of this Chica-Tampa6n "connection" that it came to be regarded as a fact.

It should be made clear that early Bridges, the entrance of the cave was ruled out as the point of surface fish input. A small arroyo leads directly into the entrance, but it carries water only during rains, and furthermore its drainage is very local. Breder a added the argument that" all of the A styanax and other river fishes live at a level much below that of the cave, for miles around.

In further support of surface fish entry into the terminal part of the system is the high proportion of surface Astyanax found in the siphon pool. This was best pointed out by Breder a , and we have observed the same phenomenon at the present time We recall the preceding for two reasons First, to attempt to solve the peculiar ities of the mixed fish population in La Cueva Chica to be elaborated elsewhere in this paper , it is essential to know the source of the cave's surface fishes. We also have taken in the cave a large specimen of the river prawn Mac r o brachium jamaicensis, and we have seen others Breder, , cited a similar record.

This essentially confirms the existence of a cave-river connection. Presently, the main problem seems not to be the presence or absence of a con nection but the precise nature and location of that communication. We must state at first that no one has undertaken tracing techniques that might conclusively demonstrate the connection, but examination of the area leads to such an obvious conclusion that one becomes biased against further concern about the problem.

Until we had examined closely the area around La Cueva Chica, we had not dispelled the idea that perhaps the waters of the cave res urged at some point along the eastern face of the Sierra de El Abra as do apparently all other such waters. The pair of very small springs mentioned earlier do, in fact, lie reasonably close to the cave For the waters of the cave to resurge here would require that the cave passage make a rather drastic about 90 bend past the point of the Pool IV siphon Because this is a point that presently neither can be proved nor disproved, it must still be admitted as a possibility.

However, the cave trends southward about meters beyond its entrance toward the Rio Tampa6n Between the cave and the river, especially in the eastern part of the village of El Pujal, there are several water-filled sinks on the surface that suggest the presence of an underlying subterr a nean system The first mention of this is given by Bridges Osorio Tafall discussed these surface features in more detail, but he spoke of a subterranean [and consequently direct?

To this problem he stated : "Asimismo, parece indudable Ia extencia de una o mas comunicaciones subterriineas con el Rio Tampa6n" p. The idea of a direct connection was further converted into "fact" by such statements as that of Bridges who wrote There are no patterns in the riverbed south of the cave that would remotely suggest the presence of an undervater resurgence of subterrane a n w a ters from the north It might be suggested that the waters resurge through small p o rosities rather than through large openings, but this is beside the point because such communications would not be navigable by large animals in habiting the river.

From these tinajas, a rather prominent arroyo leads eastward for about meters, where it then turns abruptly southward to continue a similar distance, whereupon it enters the channel of the Rio Tampa6n. By the time this arroyo has reached the river its bed lies scarcely more than a meter above low water level in the river. Erosion of this arroyo obviously has resulted from the intermittent discharge of subterranean waters from the tinajas during and after heavy rains.

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At high flood stage the Rio Tampa6n must at times fill this arroyo because the bed of the arroyo at the tinajas is but 3 meters above low water level in the Rio Tampa6n Thus, the fauna of the Rio Tampa6n would seem to have fairly easy access to these tinajas, and if the subterranean waters discharged by them are continuous with those of La Cueva Chica, then a navigable communication between river and cave is established.

Breder estimated the distance between Pool IV and the river to be "about half a mile. The entrance of La Cueva Chica lies about meters north of the river meas ured along an azimuth of Pool IV siphons at a point about meters north of the river measured also along an azimuth of the trend of the ter minal part of the cave. The trio of tinajas in El Pujal lies about meters from the siphon at an azimuth of o. Thus, little demand is made upon the imagi nation to vizualize La Cueva Chica proceeding southward to the vicinity of El Pujal where its waters would then communicate with those that periodically re surge from the trio of tinajas.

One disconcerting fact remains. The water in La Cueva Chica flows contin uously throughout the year, even at the height of the dry season. Apparently higher water in the surrounding limestone enters the more anterior part of the system through small fissures although it is possible that some might enter the deep Pool I if this pool penetrates to base level. Even though La Cueva Chica waters flow continually, the tinajas in El Pujal are only of intermittent flow.

If these tinajas do, in fact, penetrate the Cueva Chica system, their intermittent flow is exactly what would be expected because the water level in them about one meter below their arroyo bed is the same as the water level in Pool IV. But at low water there is no discharge from these tinajas even though water continues to move in La Cueva Chica Therefore there must be still another site s where these moving low waters resurge, however slight may be the discharge.

The preceding suggestions then presuppose two types of exits for Cueva Chica waters, the tinajas in El Pujal as well, perhaps, as other nearby solution features that flow only at high water, and some unknown resurgence carrying the "normal" Cueva Chica flow. In passing, it may be stated that the probable connection is critical to the first problem but is of little or no significance to the latter.

Los Cuates. N Rio Tampa6n. As the name implies there are actually two caves here, their entrances but 9 meters apart. On 23 and 26 May , Mitchell and Russell descended the entrance pit of each cave, collected several fishes from small pools near the entrance drops of each, but did not determine the extent of passageway in either cave. The latter group also collected fishes from other pools in El Cuate Oeste.

El Cuate Este is scarcely more than a pit. Its entrance, lying at an elevation of 59 5 meters, opens into a shaft that falls 25 5 meters to a short passage about 17 meters in length In this passage is found a small pool at an elevation of 29 meters in which occur typical epigean Astyanax, hybrids, and eyeless fishes. This pool lies at approximately the same elevation as does the deepest pool in El Cuate Oeste, but the two are far removed laterally, and no communication navigable by man exists between the two caves The top of the entrance pit of El Cuate Oeste lies at an elevation of From the bottom of the entrance pit the passage slopes steeply southward ending after only about 20 meters at a small pool lying at an elevation of 30 5 meters.

Beyond the en trance drop to the north, the passage continues almost in a straight line and at about the same elevation. About 70 meters beyond the entrance is found a small pool at an elevation of 32 5 meters, and about 50 meters beyond this point is a larger 4 by meter pool at an elevation of 31 meters. The fish collection made in this cave during May was from this pool and included eyed, eyeless, and hybrid fishes. About meters beyond this pool, the passage drops abruptly about 10 meters to a series of small pools lying at ah elevation of 29 meters.

Ex tent of the passage beyond the fifth such pool is not known. El S6tan o del Toro. The cave was discovered on 1 June by Kenneth R. It lies at about 21 54' N latitude and 89' W lon gitude, approximately 11 km. SE Ciudad Valles. On the first visit to the cave a single blind fish was taken but others were seen.

Several subsequent visits have yielded but a single, minute fish. None of these fishes appe a red to have hybridized with surface Astyanax even though La Cueva Chica is located only 5 kilometers to the south. This cave is especially interesting because of its small size. From a shallow sink, 9 by 12 meters, there arise three tunnels. The southmost of these extends southward as a crawlway for It is in habited by ricinuleids, probably Cryptocellus pelae z i Coronado An eastern tunnel bends southward extending as a The northernmost tunnel is a fissure 11 meters long and 4.

It is possible to stand in the entrance sink and, with a lamp, see the fishes in a small pool 4 5 meters below This pool is only about Y2 meter wide by 2 5 long, but it appears to be quite deep. Though the water is quite near the surface, it is so pro tected by overburden that it never receives direct sunlight. The elevation of the cave entrance is 92 meters; the pool lies at Thus, the pool is 43 meters above the entrance of the nearest blind fish cave, La Cueva Chica ; These waters then represent a perched pool, and one which is probably small and fairly isolated because cave fishes have been so slow to make a r e appearance since the original collection.

N villages of San Felipe and El A bra at 21 o 59' N latitude and 89 56' W longitude The entrance is formed in the side of a dolina a few hundred meters east of the main San Felipe Formation-El Abra Limestone con tact and lies at an elevation of The present name refers to the prox imity of the cave to a bend curva in the Ciudad Valles-Estaci6n Tamuin railway, and its usage was established before it was determined that it is probably the same cave referred to earlier as "La Cueva del Agua" VillaR. The cave was first located by our group on 31 May by Kenneth John, William Russell, and Tom Albert who were guided to the entrance by a local miner.

Blind fishes were observed on this visit and later on the same day col lections were made by Robert Mitchell, William Russell Richard Albert, and Kenneth John. Subsequent periodic visits have yielded some additional specimens. The cave is essentially an enlarged joint with the wide arching entrance pas sage perpendicular to the main tunnel. In recent years, local people have presum ably moved aside many large cobbles that may have previously blocked access to the low water passage containing the fishes. The main passage is about meters in length and lies about 19 beneath the entrance.

About Because this cave is so near to this resurgence and it waters so much higher, it is obvious that the cave waters are perched. Fishes are probably brought up into the cave with rising ground water during extremely wet periods. On January , Mitchell, Rose, Albert, and William Elliott entered the cave and made the first blind-fish collections.

The entrance of the cave, at an elevation of At that point where it is captured by the cave, the arroyo is about 12 meters wide and 9 deep. The cave captures a drainage area of about 1 square kilometer. This drainage area is limi ted because of the presence of another complete capture, the S6tano de las Piedras, of the same arroyo about 1 kilometer upstream from the S6tano de Palma Seca. The arroyo is without a fish fauna The entrance is about 7.

The headwall is about 7. The main passage of the cave strikes W for This lake is 7. The main passage terminates about 9 meters beyond the lake. Between this lake and the entrance pit, another tunnel strikes southward for about 12 meters as a water passage At this point, the passage bears southeast for another 49 meters where it abruptly siphons.

Blind fishes are abundant in both bodies of water. Water temperature was 19 C on 31 January Vampire bats inhabit the south-trending segment of the long water passage. El S6tano de Las Piedras. NE Ciudad Valles. Its entrance is about 1 km. N S6tano de Palma Seca, I km. On 31 1 anuary the cave was entered for the first time by Mitchell, Rose, Albert, and William Elliott, and a collection of fishes was made about I 00 meters from the entrance. A second collection was made at this point on 15 1 u! On the first date, water temperature was 19 o C; on the second, it was 21 C. The cave entrance is a pit completely capturing a small arroyo developed pri marily on the San Felipe Formation but partly on El Abra Limestone.

This arroyo drains about 4 square kilometers but no more than 0 5 square kilometers of drain age enters the cave because of another, nearly complete, upstream capture, El S6tano de Jos. At the point of capture the arroyo is about 9 meters wide and 9 deep. No fishes occur in the arroyo drainage. The entrance of the cave is about 6 by 9 meters and drops about I8. The cave is basically a single passage about meters long. From the entrance, this passage trends southwest as a 4. At this point, 92 meters in side the cave, a pool is encountered that is 9 meters long and about 2 deep, lying Previous fish collections have been made from this pool and nearby ones Beyond this pool the passage begins winding from northeast to southeast in roughly I2-meter sections.

Several pools are located here About meters inside the passage, a lake about I 0 by I 0 meters is found lying 44 meters beneath the entrance, or at an elevation of I 0 I. Beyond this lake the passage continues about 9 meters high and 15 wide and is floored with large cobbles. Large bat colonies occur here. The pas sage continues about meters more, finally ending at another lake about I2 meters wide. This lake continues about I8 meters to where the passage siphons. This lake lies The entrance, a long slot in the bed of an arroyo, lies at an elevation of I76 meters.

Most of the drainage of this arroyo, about 3. At high flood stage some water probably moves across the en trance to be captured shortly by the downstream S6tano de las Piedras. No sur face fishes live in this drainage. There are meters of horizontal passage, and the deepest point lies at an elevation of 9I. There are three vertical drops, the entrance drop of27, a second of The cave is located at 22 03' N latitude and 89' W longitude, about 8 km NE Ciudad Valles, 1 5 kilometers north of the village of Montecillos, and about meters downstream from the entrance of Sotanito de Montecillos.

The entrance, an old, classical capture, lies at an elevation of It is about 23 by 15 meters and drops vertically I 4 meters on the low upstream side and 38 on the high downstream side. This entrance completely captures an arroyo that drains an area of about 6 square kilometers. No fishes inhabit this surface drainage The cave was discovered and blind fishes observed by John Risinger on 23 December This was thus the first cave known to harbor such fishes since the discovery of the original five many years previously. The first collection of fishes from this cave was not made until some years later, however, when on 31 January the cave was visited by Robert Mitchell and Francis Rose.

The collection was made in an upper level passage 16 meters beneath the entrance, or at an elevation of In these same waters on 20 November , Valerio Sbordoni and Roberto Argano collected two typical, eyed, surface Astyana. The source of these fishes still remains entirely unknown but must be dis covered. In May , William Elliott collected blind fishes in a large lake 68 meters below the entrance, or at an elevation of The cave was partially surveyed on 8 April by Chip Carney and Don Erickson This map and a map of the Arroyo between the Sotanito de Montecil los and the S6tano de Pichijumo were published by Carney The two caves were surveyed in I by members of the Association for Mexican Cave Studies, who established a connection between the two.

According to an unpub lished map, drafted by Neal Morris, there are about meters of surveyed passage in Pichijumo. The deepest point in the Pichijumo portion of this com plex system I ies 82 meters beneath the entrance, or at an elevation of El Sotanito de M o nt ecillos. NE Ciudad Valles and 2 kilometers north of the village which name it bears. The cave was discovered and blind fishes ob served on 23 December 1 by John Risinger.

On 31 January , the first collection of fishes from the cave was made by Robert Mitchell and Francis Rose. In , various members of the Association for Mexican Cave Studies surveyed this cave and the nearby S6tano de Pichijumo, during which time a connection between the two caves through a water-filled tunnel, or siphon, was established by Neal Morris, Craig Bittinger, Steve Bittinger, Jan Lewis, Roy Jameson, and Blake Harrison. Such a connection had long been suspected. The entrance of this cave is at an elevation of meters and it lies in the mid dle of an arroyo about meters upstream from the entrance of S6tano de Pichi jumo.

The small 1. The entrance drop is 35 meters. The map of the Montecil los-Pichijumo system drafted by Neal Morris indicates that about meters of horizontal passage have been surveyed in the Montecillos portion of the sys tem. Blind fishes have been found in pools from the 52 to the This cave is a good example of a very young stream capture.

Although it does take some water, the opening is so small that the amount taken is surely negligible relative to that captured by the downstream S6tano de Pichijumo. No surface Astyanax inhabit this surface drainage. An early, preliminary description of this cave has been done by McKenzie El S6tano de Soyate. NE Ciudad Valles, about 4 km. E Arroyo Montecillos, and about 3 km. The cave is named after surrounding soyate plants Beaucarnea carnio sum , woody monocotyledonous trees of the Liliaceae The cave's vertical entrance of I 97 meters ranks it as the fifth deepest pit in the New World.

For some time it was also the deepest, accessible blind-fish cave known, but that title has been relinquished now to a recently discovered cave in the Sierra de Nicholas Perez. The entrance, about 9 by Entrance elevation is meters. Although the cave appeared worthy of exploration it was not until 27 May that it was revisited by Kenneth John, Robert Mitchell, and Tom Albert. The latter two entered the cave but had only sufficient rope to reach a small ledge about 90 meters beneath the opening From there they timed falling rocks and estimated the total depth to be from about I 80 to meters.


On 6 July I , James Mcintire and William Elliott, with the assistance of Don Broussard on the surface, reached the bottom of the cave and collected about 50 blind fishes in a large lake meters beneath the entrance. On 14 August I , Broussard, Elliott, and Mcintire reentered the cave, surveyed it completely, and collected additional fishes The large lake inhabited by the fishes is over 30 meters deep and its surface, at an elevation of 55 meters, is probably near base-level in the Sierra de El Abra.

Because the entrance of the S6tano de Soyate takes no flood waters and, further more, is far removed from other sources of debris input into El Abra waters, it was somewhat surprising to find this large cave inhabited by blind fishes, par ticularly in large numbers. The abundance of fishes in these seemingly "sterile" waters suggests that they are widely distributed and abundant throughout the base level waters of the Sierra de El A bra.

El S6tano de Ia Tinaja. They had been commissioned by the American Museum of Natural History to search for such caves and to collect blind fishes. From the structure of the entrance, it would be plausible to conclude that it is the oldest blind-fish cave opening in the Sierra de El Abra. Although the en trance is termed a "s6tano," the cave does not have a simple, pit-type entrance characteristic of other s6tanos in the area.

Rather, the upstream side of the en trance has been downcut into an impressive canyon about 53 meters deep. This abrupt downcutting now has proceeded upstream to a point about I80 meters from the original entrance near which point the canyon receives a typical, small arroyo. Presently, the actual "entrance" to the cave is the opening into a hori zontal tunnel lying at the bottom of what was once the original entrance, or stream-capturing pit. According to our altimeter data, the elevation of the floor of this entrance is This does not agree with the figure ofFish I of I 71 meters The maximum surveyed depth of the cave beneath this point is 82, an elevation of The first survey of the cave was a partial one done by an expedition sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History in I This team surveyed the first meters of the main passage, to a point where a drop is encountered, un climbable without the aid of equipment.

This map was never published. During the 's, members of the Association for Mexican Cave Studies began visiting the cave, and in intensive exploration was prompted by major discoveries by David McKenzie and John Risinger. During and , about me ters of passage were surveyed and a map drafted by David McKenzie was pub lished in Russell and Raines Additional surveying in the ensuing years has brought the total to meters, with more explored passage trending toward the S6tano del Arroyo yet to be surveyed. An updated map has been published recently by Fish 4.

Beyond the entrance, 12 wide by 6 meters high, the main passage trends east for about meters. In its first ISO meters, it is about 9 wide and 4. It then attains widths and heights over 23 meters. In places, the floor is cov ered with large breakdown boulders often covered with the guano of vampire bats. In several places, and especially at a point about meters inside the en trance, large amounts of organic debris are banked along the main passage.

This debris supports an abundance of invertebrates Elliott and Strandtmann, I97I. At about the meter point in the main passage, a small lake, "Traverse Lake" Fish, , is encountered that always has been found to contain blind fishes. Beyond this lake, at a point about meters from the entrance, is the 8-meter "Cable Ladder Drop" which marks the end of the AMNH survey From the bottom of this drop, a 7.

The surface of this lake marks the deepest surveyed point in the cave. Elaborate cautions have been designed to keep him in his cell, and anyone who gets near him, including the other seven, is effectively in a death sentence. SCP appears to have a baby crying, which is always meters below the observer. This is also implying that the others care whether the baby lives or dies, which a true creepypasta just shouldn't do. SCP says that the microphones are being shoved close to his face, and that he'll kill the baby or worse if they don't move them farther away, Also "Radically Insane" may be a reference to a nickname given to SCP, "Radical Larry".

The actor playing looks nothing like this, so it begins to get darker as the picture is pasted over the actor's face. He is saying that the other seven won't even want to come to them. SCP goes down at least 1. The two will be waiting to see if any of the other seven go downstairs. The Rake is saying that the never-ending staircase is boring and annoying to go down, and that the SCPs' rhymes are as tedious to listen to.

The stories of the Rake's nine opponents are clogging up the internet and calling themselves creepypastas when they really aren't. This is especially true of the SCPs, whose pasta contains over 2, characters and items, plus enough tales and jokes to at least double that number. The Rake will eat the other nine. He is also saying that he eats even "sick" good rhymes because his are so much better.

The Rake is calling the others women and idiots. One possibility about the Rake, since he has been seen for at least eight centuries, is that he has time travel capabilities. This may also simply mean that he's been killing people throughout history. It should also be noted that since the actor, being non-animated, looks nothing like the Rake, plenty of people had probably still not realized who it was at this point. The Rake, again, is at least eight hundred years old. He's lived throughout history, and he's going to make and history kill them.

The Rake is saying that he's going to terrorize the world, and no one will figure out what's really going on. The Rake usually gets around on all fours. For rhymes to "flow" is for them to fit naturally with each other, something not every rapper can pull off. Skin-Taker is announcing his entrance. The word "cove" is cut off, so it sounds like "Light the candle on this candle, Skin-Taker has arrived! Skin-Taker wants the other ten to go inside his studio so he can make them scream.

The pirate ship of the main characters was called the Laughingstock. Skin-Taker is saying he laughs at the other ten. Candle Cove's fanbase is small, but has almost as much depth as the Slender fanbase, and the entire series has been created. Skin-Taker is telling the others not to change the channel on his show, because Pirate Percy is about to appear. This is the first time a rapper announces another rapper's entrance.

Pirate Percy, being a pirate, refers to the others as "maties". Pirate Percy is saying the others can't get through them, perhaps because he is the only one other than Herobrine with a sword. It is a common trope that spirits and similar entities can exit a television program into the real world. However, this never happens in Candle Cove, which, although very strange, is not supernatural. It's unclear who Pirate Percy is mocking, but it is probably Laughing Jack.

While he laughs at him, Percy will hurt the other nine. Percy is saying that the other ten should leave. He calls them "landlubbers", a derogatory term used by pirates to refer to non-sailors. However, only Herobrine is actually dead, but most Creepypastas are portrayed as people who are already dead and are going to kill people.

The other ten are out for blood, and are not happy that Skin-Taker and Percy have dissed them. Candle Cove was a show for young children, which are usually educational. However, violence is definitely not on the usual list of subjects. Horace Horrible is almost religiously devoted to Skin-Taker, and defers to him in leadership issues.

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  8. Continuing the previous theme, Horace is teaching kids that if you slice someone's throat, they die. Quite often, treasure chests are lost and are never seen after that. Horace will slit the others' throats and dispose of their bodies. Notably, it is never said who Horace Horrible is, and he bears only a passing resemblance to the original. In BOB's story, it broke the glass downstairs to get into the target's house. There is a sound of glass shattering at the beginning of this line, which makes the first half of it very difficult to hear.

    BOB had been stalking its target for several nights before finally killing him. It would obviously be scary to know that a creature was in your house. Eye contact with BOB causes the onlooker to be frozen in fear. BOB is referred to only as "the creature" by the narrator. When it's done, the other thirteen will actually know how to rap, since according to BOB they didn't before. BOB is announcing who it is. BOB slammed its victim to kill him in his story.

    BOB has no arms, a fact that is obvious when watching the video. BOB has a resistance to damage. It is saying that if the other thirteen don't stop rapping now, it will kill them. Creepypastas are an online medium. The other thirteen overestimate their power and think BOB would need an army to take them out, when he could actually kill them on his own.

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    This foreshadows later verses; only three out of the twenty-one rappers remaining are not lost episodes or video game characters. He is telling the others to go to sleep so that they will dream of him.

    Romeo and Juliet

    Many creepypastas involve either scientists or creatures in forests the latter being so common that it is a cliche. The Grey Man, however, can go anywhere he wants in peoples' minds. The Rake and B.

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    The game is known for having strange textures, so the Grey Man will add the Rake and B. The Grey Man is not scared by the other rappers. Candle Cove was a children's show, so it shouldn't be scary. He also compares Van Buren to Ron Jeremy, a porn star. The Grey Man says that the Midnight Man's pasta is even worse than Twilight, a book series which many people think is terrible. He will kill the other creepypastas. Those stalked by the Grey Man wish that they could forget him. Because of this, the other rappers might not even remember him.

    However, the reason for this is not the terror he brings, but for his ugliness. The Grey Man also does not have a face. UBOA will have fun tormenting the other rappers. Despite being a non-playable character, UBOA is actually more famous than his own game, and many creepypastas have been written about him. There is no way out of this area. He will do the same to the other pastas. The White Desert is possibly snowy, so UBOA is making a pun off of "There's no way out of this" to tell the others that there is no way to escape his realm.

    The main character in Yume Nikki has a bike. There actually is a way out of UBOA's realm; pinching yourself in Yume Nikki will wake you up, allowing you to escape. The others should do this to escape him. Polybius is sick of the others' rhymes. He is also referencing the Grey Man, since to be high on LSD means that one is taking an "acid trip", and the fact that Polybius himself causes similar effects.

    The only thing known about Polybius for sure is that his game is from the 8-bit era. He is using this as a pun for the fact that he will cut the others into eight pieces. Polybius causes addiction, seizures, and eventually death. The others will be killed the same way when they play his arcade game. Polybius is making a pun off the Rake's name. A rake is also a long object that can be snapped. Polybius will maim the others and leave them to die.

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    Polybius was created by government agents who lied about the deaths of certain people who played it, covering it up under classification. Polybius is a video game from , making him one of the oldest games ever. When he is done, the others will know how to rap. He is telling the others to leave. A theme of his pasta is love, so he is telling the others that, like his original owner, he doesn't need them. BRVR will catch his opponents so he can set fire to them like the candles that would be used to set up the Midnight Game. BRVR truly does need love, but he refuses to accept this.

    He says that he doesn't care about the others and that none of them have won the battle. BRVR is suicidal, but his environment won't let him die. He says that the reason for this is not his abandonment, but the other rappers. BRVR is a Pikachu, so he can attack the others with thunder. He is mocking the others, saying that they can't resist his attacks. BRVR's subtitles flash golden during this line. In BRVR's story, his owner says that she still loves him.

    However, his owner went into shock upon first seeing what he had done to his world. BRVR didn't want his owner to react the way she did after all those years alone, and now wants the other creepypastas to leave. Polybius's face is seen filling the screen and screaming at the end of this line.

    Happy Appy was a children's TV show, and he is starting his verse how an episode of one of those shows would traditionally start. Happy Appy claims he's just a big friendly apple, but he really isn't. He's feeling like killing the others right now. Happy Appy was banned from Nick Jr. However, his creator kept producing episodes, creating second and third seasons of the show. It has been shown in several separate battles that the creators don't actually realize that BRVR's owner is a girl, referring to the owner as "he".