Lady Midnight (The Roland Longville Mystery Series Book 5)

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Thus there was added reason to celebrate on Monday, November 11th , with the celebrations of Holy Communion taking place at St. Lent by Mr. By order of the Executrix of the late Mrs. On Sunday, January 4th , at the evening service at St. However, on the international scene there would soon be more urgent concerns, and following the declaration of war, in August not only did the choirboys of St. Yet Harry Goodin, the churchwarden of St. By early October many men from the parish had answered the national call, and amongst those now on military service were;.

As for the home front, the Reverend Bennitt would provide meals at Bletchley Rectory for a party of Belgian refugees, who, having arrived in the town on Thursday, October 29th , would have their sleeping accommodation arranged by the parishioners. With many troops now quartered in the town, a second Church Parade took place on Sunday, February 1st , when about men of the Royal Engineers, plus their band, assembled for a service at St. Indeed, the collections had been considerably increased by the Church Parades, and although the military had stated their wish not to take the money back, there was some concern as to whether the Churchwardens should accept any donations from this source.

During the months of June, July, and August , as an experiment it was decided to alter the time of the evening service at St. Then in other measures in November efforts were made to provide the eighty or so parishioners now in the Forces with a Christmas present. Boyes as the auditor, as a means to raise the necessary money a grand evening concert was staged in the St.

On Sunday, January 9th , a short service took place at St. Powell, to the memory of Alexander Coutts Trotter. This had been given by his widow, the former Miss Madelaine Selby Lowndes, of the local family of renown, and also of local renown was Sir George Martin who, having for many years been the organist at St. When a few years ago it was decided to replace the old organ in St. Variously throughout the war the weekly concert for soldiers, arranged by the Good Templar Lodge in the Temperance Hall, would be given by the Bletchley St.

Then also for the benefit of soldiers, at the beginning of May the Reverend Bennitt and Mr. Goodin urgently provided parcels for Messrs. King and J. Betts, who, owing to sickness, had each only received one package whilst serving in the Dardanelles. Parcels were also to be sent to J. Jackson who, again owing to sickness, had not received his Christmas parcel, as well as E. Meredith, who shortly after Christmas had become a prisoner of war in Germany. In addition, powers were now to be given to send parcels to any men on the St.

By the kind permission of Mr. Snoxell, the venue was a couple of fields adjoining the St. It was therefore perhaps due to these duties that the Reverend Bennitt was absent on Sunday, August 19th , with the services at St. Daniell Bainbridge, who was presently resident at the Rectory. However, soon to return from an absence was Sydney Herbert King, who before joining the Army had been a bellringer at St. In fact here the bells would now be rung on his behalf, for having been granted special leave he married Mabel Alice Leah French, the second daughter of Mr.

She had been a teacher in the St. Railway , which he had joined from a previous employment on the Locomotive Department Staff of Bletchley Station. With the Corps, he had gone to France in January , and in July would be promoted to the rank of company sergeant major.

At the Harvest Festival, a distribution of the vegetables was made amongst the poor of the congregation of St. This had been given by the widow of Mr. Coutts Trotter, and with the Chapel having been thoroughly restored, here it was proposed to place any memorial that the parishioners might wish, as a tribute to their relatives killed in the war. In fact the front of the new altar was made of the material used at the Coronation of the King, at Westminster Abbey, and with the pattern being outlined with gold cord by three girls of Bletchley, the linen cloths were embroidered by members of the congregation.

Thereby, this would avoid overlapping, and in fact because arrangements for raising the funds had now been made, some of the parcels had already been posted. Indeed, before Christmas 68 parcels would be sent to those men from the parish who were serving in the Forces, having been packed by a committee of ladies comprising Mrs.

Bennitt, Mrs. French, Mrs. Atkins, Mrs. Halsey, Mrs. Keyte, Mrs. Markham, Mrs. Meager, Mrs. Tompkins and Miss Scott. That the parcels were greatly appreciated was beyond doubt, but the men on active service were not only remembered at Christmas, for in the parish magazine in May mention was made of John Clarke, who was suffering from severe shell shock, and Harold West who had been wounded.

Operating Corps. A whist drive was held in St.

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This was to raise funds for the repair of the main gates and pillars at St. On Sunday afternoon, August 5th there was a special service for men in St. After some 19 months of continuous service he was home on leave from France, and was due to return on Wednesday, August 8th. Fred Meager, of Far Bletchley, were informed that their eldest son, Sapper Lawrence Meager, of the Royal Engineers, had died in France on September 28th, having been struck the previous day by a fragment of shrapnel shell. A bell ringer at St. His sons then took over the concern, with the younger remaining in Bletchley when his brother was called up for the Army.

However, he would now have to manage the business alone, and to the widow of his brother Captain Richards would write;. Apart from a widow, Lawrence also left five children. By early December the Far Bletchley St. A quarter peal was rung at St. Mead, one of the ringers, who had been home on a short leave from France.

As for another of the ringers, the unveiling and dedication of a wall tablet to the memory of Sapper Lawrence Meager was conducted by the Reverend Bennitt on Saturday evening, April 27th This took the form of a short service held in the belfry of St. On Tuesday afternoon, June 11th , there was another sombre occasion at St. Taberner, who had been a regular worshipper, were laid to rest. For his departure, the bell ringers had intended to ring a peal for good luck, but this had to be abandoned due to illness in the parish and at the Rectory. On Sunday, July 14th the bells at St.

Selby Lowndes, A. He had died on July 11th from septic poisoning, contracted whilst on active service, and had been at the Front since June The eldest son of the late Richard William Selby Lowndes, he was 44 years of age, and saw service in the Matabele revolt of and also the Boer War. In aid of funds for the Sunday Schools a dance took place on Thursday evening, August 8th in the St.

Meanwhile, now being with 1 Training Brigade, R. There are several clergy under training in the camp. The camp is three miles from the town and on sand - sand everywhere, and in everything - it is the chief enemy. We are in tents, and the sand blows into clothes and food and eyes. The Y. The ladies who serve the Church Army tent seem quite the nicest people, and as far as this camp goes the Church has not been backward in providing for the troops.

I think it is a useful influence for clergy to live with the men on an equality both of clothes and general life. The language of some of the Lancashire lads is unprintable and pours out on every occasion; but it affords a relaxation between the times of discipline, and has little meaning to them. The sense of comradeship and brotherhood is wonderful, - a man you have never met before addresses you as chum, and converses like an old friend. Prior to Evensong, at St.

Also home on leave in late August would be another of the ringers, Sapper H. Morris, who was serving in the R. In his honour the bells at St. Leonard, of Bletchley, died from influenza in France. He had also been a bell ringer at St. The destination being Salonica, on November 8th the Reverend Bennitt left England as one of a draft of men of the R. Nevertheless, the usual festal service took place at St. There was a great deal of malaria and influenza, and a strong reinforcement of R. However, by the time we arrived, an improvement had taken place, and only about half our number were needed.

However, from another point of view, my work in the Army has been of value. I have frequently taken services, both week-days and Sundays, and it does seem to have been a good thing for me to have shared in the ordinary daily life among the men on an exact equality rather than as a Chaplain. At any rate, I have learnt more of the general point of view of the men of all branches of the service than otherwise could have been possible.

In January the Reverend F. Hoyle, who had resigned the living of Great Brickhill. This was to be paid annually out of a close of land in Bletchley called Parsons Piece, and in memory of the revered grandfather of Browne Willis, Thomas Willis, who had been an eminent surgeon, the three Trustees would consequently pay the curate of Fenny Stratford to preach a sermon every St. Sometime later the premises found use as an alehouse, known as The Crispin, but when Browne Willis acquired the property it was in such a poor state of repair that, in order for it to be made habitable, he had the front wall completely rebuilt, and duly recorded this expense on the deed of conveyance.

He then gave the property to the town, to fund both a sermon on St. However, in the case of the latter this was perhaps with a sense of irony, if the Conyers Burton so mentioned was the same person who, before the building of a small Baptist church in , had allowed those inhabitants inclined towards the Baptist faith to use his house as a meeting place! By the later 19th century, becoming known as St. Thus in June the Clerk of the Council reported that he had served the first notice of the closing order on the Reverend Firminger, and the two churchwardens, on May 19th.

This became operative two weeks later, and since the Church officers had no funds to carry out the necessary alterations and enlargements, he served the notice of closing orders on the occupiers on June 3rd. If the occupants, Francis Dickens and Elizabeth Thomas, had not left by the required time, then proceedings would be taken, and although one family had found another home, an old lady and her son continued to live in the other house until Tuesday, August 25th , when they were evicted by the police.

With the Clerk of the Council instructed to apply for a demolition order, it was decided, at the Council meeting on November 10th , that the question of demolition would be placed on the formal agenda for the Council meeting on Tuesday, January 12th , and the owners were duly informed of this date. Therefore, since no further developments had been forthcoming, on the stated date at 8p. This took place at 4p. Howard, a local firm of builders.

By the end of April St. Despite plans from Messrs. Howard having been passed for two cottages in Aylesbury Street, it seems that when the site was cleared the firm of George Manyweather and Sons purchased the area on moving from premises in Denmark Street, and built a wheelwrights shop, where they would produce many shanks for gun carriages for the Army. In fact born at Marston, in Bedfordshire, George Manyweather had come to the district a few years after his marriage, in at Ampthill, to Emily Harris, and before starting his own business would work as a wheelwright at Rowlands.

In later life he would then marry Christiana, whose first husband, Thomas Tolton, had died in Aside of the main road running through Far Bletchley, during the 19th century a large range of posting and hunting stables had been built near Bletchley station by Mr. These faced towards the yard, and had no doorway to the road onto which they backed.

Following the death of Mr. Wigley to Sir Herbert Leon, and were then occupied by a succession of tenants including Mr. Holland-Corbett, Mr. Clode, Mr. Tutt, Mr. Croft and lastly a Mr. However, at the end of his tenancy the premises became vacant and almost derelict. Then during the third week in August , men of the R. As the war dragged on, the need for timber, not least for pit props in the trenches, became increasingly important, and in early it was reported that, under the Defence of the Realm Act, the Army Council had taken steps to assume control of all stocks in the United Kingdom of soft sawn timber - planed and unplaned - including railway sleepers.

Johnston, the Director of Wood Supplies. Including a laundry and bathrooms etc. In fact a good deal of the machinery and material for the workshops was already on site - plus a traction engine, and some 21 powerful timber cart horses - and nearby other sheds and structures were erected, as also in the paddock, into which the yard opened on the south. In the workshops it was expected that buildings and huts would be constructed, and during July adverts were placed in London newspapers seeking 40 women to apply for work at the premises, which, when the alterations were complete, would provide the residence for some 20 of them.

As for the meanwhile, they would occupy three cottages on the Bletchley Park Estate. The rest of the women were to be stationed at other depots connected with Bletchley, which as the chief work centre would supply all the others. As for the two dwelling houses on the premises, they would be occupied by the officers in charge of the work. Soon the Depot was in full operation, and within the first few months took over adjoining stabling which had been occupied for many years by Messrs. Essen, coal merchants. In fact this seemed somewhat ironic, for with the coming of winter in December Mr.

Yet conversely the Depot had a need for anthracite dust, and, as reported at a meeting of the Council in January , had expressed an interest in purchasing the surplus available at the Sand House Waterworks. Apart from timber workers, the Depot also had two blacksmiths, and on March 21st at the Local Military Service Tribunal one of these, Thomas Milburn, aged 24, was appealed for by the Timber Supply Director, Bletchley, since the two blacksmiths had more work than they could do.

In fact if he was taken then urgent work would have to stop, but nevertheless the appeal was dismissed, although the man was not to be called for one month. On Wednesday, November 27th , some time after 5. Indeed, only a few timbers remained upright, and with the smaller sheds in the yard having all been consumed, by this time the roof of the buildings on the west side of the yard was also well alight. In fact the whole of the roof would be destroyed and the upper storey completely gutted, although the lower ground floor storey and its contents were only partly damaged.

Here the flames had extended to one of the rooms in the dwelling house adjoining the range of stables occupied by the Controller of the Depot, but fortunately the remainder of the house was undamaged, except for some scorching on the front, and a few broken windows. As for the range of buildings on the east side of the yard, in which most of the living quarters were situated, this escaped practically intact, with the only real damage being to the south end corner, where the fire, although having taken a hold, was mastered before any great damage was caused.

Many people, some arriving in cars, had come to witness the fire, and some perhaps helped the staff to carry quantities of sawn timber, planks, stores etc. Additionally, from the railway hydrants on the line, and around the railway carriage sheds, an ample high pressure water supply was obtained, with the hose being carried through the cottage grounds and gardens to the stable buildings, where a numerous gang of men were at work isolating that range of structures.

Under James Garner, the fire brigade more correctly known as the Bletchley Urban Council Fire Brigade also arrived swiftly on the scene, but since the water supply from the town mains proved of little use, the steam fire engine had to be taken to the lake in Bletchley Park, from which an ample supply was then pumped.

By telephone, even the Newport Pagnell fire brigade had been summoned, but in the event they were not required, and in fact by 10p. Nevertheless, a watch had to be kept all night, and the Bletchley fire brigade and engine would not return to the fire station until noon on Thursday. Medically educated at St. There, with his garden occupying much of his free time, he would remain for the next 22 years, serving as a member of the B.

In politics he held the views of a Liberal Unionist, whilst as for religion he was for many years a sidesman at St. In he was initiated into the St. Yet during the early stages of the war he and his corps would remain in England, but although this meant that on occasion he could still attend the Council meetings at Bletchley, he could no longer attend to his medical practice.

Therefore, from Monday, September 28th this was removed to Bracknell House, but with the War Office having a continued and increasing need for doctors, soon also to be removed was the locum tenens who had acted for Captain Buxton for several weeks, Dr. At the meeting in January , it was stated that since they were both now serving in the medical branch of the Army, Dr. Deyns and Dr. Buxton had offered to resign from the committee of the Fenny Stratford School Managers, but, with this not being accepted, Lady Leon would be asked to reply to say that their seats would be kept open.

Deyns, R. Water is very scarce and only just sufficient for our bottles. We are not comfortable and sleep in our clothes and boots, the nights being cold. We are, it is needless to say, in the Dardanelles, and really seeing active service. We see numbers of wounded soldiers and shells and bullets falling everywhere. Our stretcher bearers are splendid and brave, one has been killed and others wounded, but none of the officers.

Guns and rifles are going all day and night; things are terrible, and I shall be glad when it is all over. Do not worry, I shall turn up some day. This would be a delightful spot if it was not for the war. We get next to no news, and have been living quite out of the world with nothing to talk about except shells and shots. I could write a lot more, but it would all be so sad.

However, when orders were received to proceed to Chocolate Hill he was in declining health, and although his was the opinion that the illness could be shaken off, the medical authorities thought otherwise, and transferred him to a hospital ship. Aboard this he then died from dysentery near Malta in January , and was buried at sea. Yet news of his death would only reach his comrades, now in the trenches of Chocolate Hill, several weeks later via a local newspaper, which had been sent to one of the soldiers from England. As for Dr. Kelland, M. Brown was appointed.

In St. Buxton used to sit may be seen on the north wall of the nave, at the western end, a memorial tablet in bronze, mounted on an oak base, With a faculty having been obtained from the Bishop of Oxford, this was placed in June , and on Saturday evening, August 25th a special celebration of choral evensong took place for the dedication. During his time at Bletchley, Dr. Phillips and Sons, coachbuilders. Born the second son of Dr.

Frederick Deyns, in Dr.

Month: December 2018

Charles John Deyns took over the practice of his father at the Red House, in the High Street, which for many years had been the home of various doctors. Leaving his medical partner Dr. Despite being over military age, as lieutenant colonel in command of the 2nd South Midland Mounted Brigade, Field Ambulance, which in peace time had its headquarters in Stony Stratford, he joined his men, and through being initially stationed in England was able to obtain a short leave to attend a meeting of the Council on Tuesday, September 8th However, during his military absence his position would thereafter be covered by Mr.

The youngest brother of Dr. Deyns, Ernest Fuller Victor Deyns, would also opt for active service, and in December was granted a temporary lieutenancy in the Royal Bucks Hussars. In fact he had served as a trooper throughout the South African war, and despite having emigrated to Canada rejoined his old regiment at the request of the Commanding Officer.

Then under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel W. Meanwhile, in Bletchley towards the end of September Miss Deyns was voluntarily assisting at the Recruiting Office, in connection with the compilation of the National Register. Also in Bletchley, Dr. Maynard Vasey was now taking the medical role of Lieutenant Colonel Deyns, although by February he would be back at Bletchley, having been invalided from the Gallipoli Peninsula to Egypt, suffering from frostbite to his hands and toes.

In fact so severe had been the cold that, shortly before he succumbed, 1, men had to be invalided due to the same cause, being sent to the coast for transport to hospital. For his service at Gallipoli, Lieutenant Colonel Deyns would be awarded the coveted Territorial Decoration, and being now back in Bletchley he would attend the meeting of the Managers of the Bletchley Road Council Schools on the afternoon of Monday, February 7th In fact this was his first attendance since the beginning of the war, and he was heartily welcomed. However, by August he was again away on military service, as also by March , whilst as for his sister, at a meeting of the Bletchley, Fenny Stratford and District War Pensions Sub Committee on Friday, October 25th she gave a report regarding a Fenny Stratford case for dental treatment.

This had been referred to the Ivory Cross Society, and because they had agreed to pay the bill the man had now had his teeth attended to. Having in February returned from the Forces, Lieutenant Colonel Deyns could thereon resume his many responsibilities, which variously included being a county magistrate, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Fenny Stratford Gas Light and Coke Company, and, as a keen cricketer, presiding at the inaugural meeting of the Bletchley Town Cricket Club.

This had been founded on February 16th , but was then moved to Manor Fields in , this ironically being the same year in which Dr. Deyns died. Being an eminent local historian, Dr. William Bradbrook, or Bradbrooke, d is probably best remembered for his History of Fenny Stratford, published in With Charles having won the D. Bradbrook, with the other two being his sons. In fact with them in the Canadians was also 18 year old Trooper Bruce Edward, the six foot five inches tall second son of Mr.

Edward, who, previously of Aylesbury Street, were now living at Simpson. Francis was the eldest son of Dr. Bradbrook, and had arrived from Canada with the First Canadian Contingent, as one of the three signallers of the Canadian Mounted Rifles. As for Gerard Bradbrook, he was the second son, and having been in Canada when the war broke out, when aged 17 joined the Canadian Regiment as a bugler. Arriving in Britain with the first Canadian Expeditionary Force, he would be quartered at Salisbury Plain, but when his regiment left for France in he, and about of his comrades, had to remain behind suffering from German measles.

Despite recovering from the disease, he then suffered complications, and after treatment and an operation joined the Canadian headquarters at Shorncliffe, where he would remain until around mid Bradbrook would be the chief instructor in the Bletchley Station first aid classes, and would also act as one of the medical examiners for new recruits at the Co-op Hall, Albert Street. Yet nevertheless she would still carry on the work in conjunction with other members of the committee. During the following month her husband was sworn in at Bletchley as a special constable, but dated May 10th he then received a letter from his eldest son, Trooper Francis Bradbrook, stating that he had been wounded by a shrapnel bullet.

Sustained in the trenches, apparently the wound was not serious, for despite having been caught without his helmet, when Francis heard the shell coming he used his spade to protect his head. Nevertheless, the next thing he remembered was being at the Base Hospital. Bradbrook for a few days, but on reading in the Sunday newspapers of the severe fighting at Ypres, he at once cancelled his leave and left the same evening to rejoin his regiment.

Indeed, in July when aged 16 the earliest age allowed he would then appear in the list of successful candidates at the London University Matriculation Exam, which had been held the previous month. Having seen action at the Ypres salient, the Somme, the Ancre and Arras, in December Trooper Divisional Signaller Francis Bradbrook, 1st Canadian Mounted Rifles, came home for his first short leave with his parents, but as for another guest of the household, at the Petty Sessions on December 14th Marie Pactre, now companion to Mrs.

Browning, of Curson Court, Limerick, was summoned for having failed to register as an alien at Bletchley. Of Swiss nationality, for a while she, having correctly registered, had stayed with Dr. Bradbrook at Bletchley, but in due course she went away and registered at her new address. Then, despite this being for only a day, she returned to Bletchley, but on trying to re-register could not find anyone in relevant authority.

Since she was now in Ireland, at the hearing a Mr. Thornley appeared on her behalf, whilst as for Dr. Bradbrook, he could not attend due to having been called out to a patient. A fine of 10s was imposed. This was for bravery during June, but in a letter received one Sunday morning in April , Dr. Bradbrook received news that Major Bradbrook was now in the First General Military Hospital at Camberwell, London, having been wounded in the arm during the storming and carrying of Vimy Ridge, near Arras.

In fact having left England with his regiment in June , until now he had remained unscathed, despite experiencing the fighting firstly in the Ypres Salient, and subsequently at Arras, the Somme, the Ancre, again at Arrras, and then in the front fighting line with the Canadians in the great push, which was still proceeding. Bradbrook, was gazetted to a direct commission as Second Lieutenant in the Machine Gun Section, and subsequent to arriving in France he also had taken part in all the hard fighting around Arras, on the Somme and the Ancre, as well as being at the capture of Vimy Ridge, where his uncle, Major Howard Bradbrook, M.

At the instigation of Sir Herbert Leon, to consider forming a war savings committee for Bletchley, Fenny Stratford and the surrounding district, a meeting was held on Wednesday evening June 20th in the Council Offices, where a committee was duly appointed, to include Lady Leon and Miss Broome Giles, with Mrs. Bradbrook as secretary.

He had now been invalided home, but hoped to shortly rejoin his regiment. Bradbrook, the honorary secretary, gave a concise report regarding the work of the committee during the six months of its existence, saying that lantern lectures had been given for publicity at Bletchley, Woburn Sands, Great Brickhill, and Little Brickhill. With Mrs. Bradbrook, since not only had she been intimately and closely connected with the War Saving and War Economy movements, but she was also the only one who had wartime experience of maintaining a household and catering for a family of children.

Thus when a vote was held she gained 3 votes, including that of the Chairman, whilst Miss Sinfield and Mrs. Hammond each polled 2 votes. Bennitt having resigned as the honorary treasurer since he was shortly to join the Army Mrs. Bradbrook was asked to temporarily take over the role. Then in October she and Dr.

Bradbrook heard that having been wounded in the late fighting in the Cambrai sector, Major Howard Bradbrook, M. However, at the same time they received news that their second son, Lieutenant Gerard Bradbrook, M. In November then came the further distressing news that their first son, Sergeant Major Francis Bradbrook, Machine Gun Section, Canadian Division, had been gassed during the operations following the German retreat. Presently he was in hospital in France, whilst as for his youngest brother, Hugh, he was now a lieutenant in the R.

Indeed, having lately received his commission, he had recently made his first cross Channel flight, and would be stationed with the British air force in France. This was for action whilst in command of his regiment during the Somme operations, and at the same investiture the King conferred the Bronze Edward Medal on John Carter, of Bletchley. Also in Bletchley Road, agricultural machinery was the province of Randalls Vulcan Works, which in February needed moulders, fitters, turners, and erectors.

Not that this was of much interest to Mr. Finch Hill, of Denbigh Hall Farm, for he was leaving the district, and, on May 11th there would be a consequent auction by George Wigley and Sons of various effects, to include furniture, 17 head of cattle, 2 cart horses, poultry, geese and ducks, and farm implements. Of those farmers who remained in the district, Thomas Gale, of Water Eaton, required an under milker single , who, with every third Sunday free, would be paid 16s a week.

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As for other opportunities for employment, Mrs. With admission priced at 1s or 6d after 5p. With the orchid houses and gardens being open to the public from 2p. On Saturday, July 18th the 4th annual show of the L. Broome Giles at Holne Chase, and whilst there were fewer entries than usual, these were of better quality. Extra classes for the year included lace making and fancy work, and in the afternoon the Caledonian Boy Pipers played selections, and also gave a display of Scottish dancing.

During the evening music for dancing was provided by the Bletchley Station Band, which had performed selections throughout the day, and also throughout the day fine weather had been a welcome feature. Wigley had to erect canvas coverings to protect the pigs from the sun. Arranged by the Bucks County Education Committee, at 7p.

Instead the chair was taken by Mr. Marchant, vice chairman of the local committee, and at the end of the demonstration the prepared bottles of fruit were handed around the audience for inspection. Kemp, a local dairyman, could now offer five poultry houses, built in sections, for sale, whilst for the sale of dairy cattle a show and sale took place at the Park Hotel on Friday, October 2nd. Not that dairy stock was of great interest to Mr. Edwards, for as a butcher and game dealer in Fenny Stratford he had now taken a partner to help with the demands of trade.

In fact he had carried on the business for many years, but as for Mr. William Marriott, of 6, High Street, he was now leaving the district, and had instructed George Wigley and Sons to auction on Monday, October 12th an active bay cart mare, and various carts and other agricultural items, including a plough. Colgrove was accepted, whilst in March Mr. Kirby, F. A number of panes of glass had recently been broken at the nursery premises of Paul Klameth, a naturalised Briton, in Bletchley Road, and in consequence on the night of Saturday, May 15th Inspector Callaway, police sergeant Snelling and four special constables kept the premises under surveillance.

Shortly after 11p. However, the rest of the men dispersed, and on Sunday morning several more panes of glass were found to have been broken. In due course the two persons arrested on the premises, a carter and a labourer, both of Fenny Stratford, were brought to court on Thursday, May 20th , and although they pleaded guilty they said they were not intent on any unlawful purpose.

Having come from Fenny Stratford they had passed the house and nurseries but then returned, and climbing over the fence looked in at the dining room window of the house, which stood amongst the glass and hothouses. They then went round to the back, where, in the company of a special constable, police sergeant Snelling found them by the door. For the local farmers, W. In fact these might have been of interest to Mr. During June G. Leech Lake …. They asked questions. They took deep breaths.

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In Minnesota, Phyllis enjoyed time with the family on Lake Linka and after…. Preceded in death by his…. Louis Park …. Preceded in death by husband, Alton. Nettleton wrote that "Love for Love's success was well merited, for in it wit is married to grace of diction. Valentine, a young spendthrift who is lucky in love, has had many successors in English comedy, among them, Young Honeywood in Goldsmith's Good Natur'd Man and Charles Surface.

His wit does not stop with his assumption of madness. In a way that curiously recalls Hamlet, he uses his folly like a stalking-horse and under the presentation of that he shoots his wit. Jeremy, who 'waited upon a gentleman at Cambridge,' cites Epictetus, Seneca, Plato, and Diogenes in a single speech, as readily as Fag alludes to Jupiter's masquerades in love.

The ceaseless showers of wit fall alike on master and man. Sir Sampson Legend, Valentine's father, is a vigorous portrait of the crusty father. Scandal is the familiar confidant of Restoration comedy, not too busy to neglect his own intrigue. Miss Prue, an admirable example of the Restoration perversion of the ingenue, is essentially of the same type as Wycherley's Mrs Pinchwife and Miss Hoyden in Vanbrugh's Relapse. Miss Prue has some admirable scenes, one where Tattle initiates her into the mystery of saying one thing while meaning the opposite another with her sailor suitor Ben, whose awkward advances lead to a mutual disagreement which anticipates the scene of Tony Lumpkin and Miss Neville" pp It is the weary cry of the knower who realizes that happiness may not be sought for or grasped, and that joy must be snatched as it flies" p Downer pointed out the resemblances between the sexes in regard of delaying matrimony to ensure personal freedoms.

Profiting by the new importance which increasing freedom has given to women of the upper classes, her greatest pleasure is to keep as many lovers as possible in suspense for as long as possible. He has a cold completeness, an absolute detachment from good, that is masterly, 'For wisdom and honesty, give me cunning hypocrisy; oh, 'tis such a pleasure, to angle for fair-faced fools' he says, and his ingenious ingenuousness is as daring in conception as it is convincing in the execution" p He is given the appearance of a fine gentleman, a truewit; other characters treat him as one, and he usually talks like one.

But here the similarities end, for he is never allowed to act the part. He is endowed with the minimal necessary features to be recognized as a truewit, but he is not developed as one, for in the plot he is also a gull" Corman, p In the view of Nicoll , "brilliancy characterizes the whole of "The old bachelor"; the wit rises and falls with a continual vivacity Wholly immoral as it is, it yet clothes that immorality with a profusion of wit that assuredly disarms, as it must in that age have disarmed, what one can only style the moral sense" p The more positive Nettleton praised Congreve as "the wittiest and perhaps most graceful writer of English comedy" Its characters were largely conventional, yet even Captain Bluffe, a cowardly blusterer anticipated in the first English comedy, Ralph Roister Bolster, has a certain vividness and individuality.

Fondlewife recalls Wycherley's Pinchwife, and Heartwell, the 'surly old bachelor', pretending to slight women, secretly in love with Silvia, has some touches of Manly, while some of the characters of the underplot suggest Jonsonian humours" pp Of "The old bachelor", he wrote that "Congreve's skill as a manipulator of pure frolic is immediately seen; he could handle farce as well as anybody. The timid Sir Joseph Wittol, with his cowardly protector, Captain Bluffe, provides unceasing amusement. We are clearly in the realm of Elizabethan comedy, and Bluffe, the braggadocio, has a long ancestry through Bobadil and Parolles to Thraso" p Oliver dismissed Congreve's and Wycherley's plays as "filthy" p Likewise, Nettleton complained of "a tone of subtle but pervasive immorality" throughout Congreve's works p Charles Lamb , cited in Matthews , demurred by stating that "the Fainalls and the Mirabels, the Dorimants and the Lady Touchwoods, in their own sphere, do not offend my moral sense; in fact, they do not appeal to it at all.

They seem engaged in their proper element. They break, through no laws or conscientious restraints; they know of none. They have got out of Christendom into the land— what shall I call it? It is altogether a speculative scene of things, which has no reference whatever to the world that is. No good person can be justly offended as a spectator, because no good person suffers on the stage. Judged morally, every character in these plays— the few exceptions only are mistakes— is alike essentially vain and worthless. The great art of Congreve is especially shown in this, that he has entirely excluded from his scenes,— some little generosities in the part of Angelica perhaps excepted,— not only anything like a faultless character, but any pretensions to goodness or good feelings whatsoever" p Lamb was misled by the mores of his own times into disbelieving that such licentious behavior ever occurred.

The notion that Restoration comedy is artificial, Wilson wrote, "is entirely inaccurate. Far from being artificial, Restoration comedy was purely realistic, because it devoted itself to studying and portraying contemporary society. Nor can it be called fundamentally immoral. The function of comedy is not to preach. It is rather, as Schlegel pointed out, to sharpen our powers of discrimination, to make us shrewder and to give us a knowledge of the world, so that we do not fall into trouble through ignorance" p Only Leigh Hunt tempered his enthusiasm, perhaps merely to balance Hazlitt's fine tribute.

Three persons wait outside a chocolate-house to speak with Petulant, who does not wish to see them. They eventually go away angrily. He dismisses this: "Anger helps complexion, saves paint," he says. Fainall thinks he understands this attitude: "This continence is all dissembled; this is in order to have something to brag of the next time he makes court to Millamant, and swear he has abandoned the whole sex for her sake.

Lady Wishfort is Mirabell's enemy for having falsely pretended to love her. In St. James' Park, Fainwell accuses Mrs Marwood, his mistress, of preventing Mirabell from marrying Millamant, so that Lady Wishfort's fortune might come to her. Fainwell's wife, hating her husband's sight, lets the two walk on ahead, to which Mirabell comments: "You should have just so much disgust for your husband as may be sufficient to make you relish your lover.

Mrs Marwood also intends to reveal the plot anonymously to Lady Wishfort in the form of a letter. To ruin Mirabell's chances with Millamant, Mrs Fainwell seeks to compromise her by locking her in a room with Wilful and have them discovered, but this ploy fails. She intends to keep up her relations with Mirabell with conditions. He denies it, swearing the letter is an invention devised by Mirabell. He offers to fight him in a duel, but she prevents that, fearing for her reputation. Nevertheless, the disguised servant's tricks are discovered by Fainwell and Mrs Marwood and he is sent to prison, though quickly set free again by Mirabell.

Meanwhile, Mrs Marwood informs Fainall of his wife's adulterous relation with Mirabell. Learning this, Lady Wishfort is thankful for her intervention. To get as much money as he can, Fainwell attempts to negotiate a settlement so that his mother-in-law, Lady Wishfort, may be prevented from marrying. He also wants part of Millamant's fortune, forfeited by her disobedience in contracting herself against Lady Wishfort's consent to Mirabell, who is forced to resign his marriage contract with her.

But Fainall and Mrs Marwood are both thwarted, first by a servant, witness to their adulterous relations, next by the existence of a marriage contract between Mrs Fainall and Mirabell before she married Fainall, so that her property is reverted to Mirabell. This sum is restored to her after he secures Lady Wishfort's consent to marry Millamant.

Because of his dissolute life, Valentine has incurred the displeasure of his father, Sir Sampson Legend, and his creditors, such as Trapland, whom he manages to hold off by plying him with drink. To pay off all his debts, Valentine is forced to submit to this father's conditions: transferring the right to the family estate after his death to a younger brother back from sea named Ben. But Mrs Frail, aunt to Angelica, a rich heiress whom Valentine courts, has learned that there is talk of marriage between Ben and Prue, daughter to her brother from a previous marriage, Foresight, a girl bred in the country.

She sarcastically comments: "Well, if he be but as great a sea-beast as she is a land-monster, we shall have a most amphibious breed. The progeny will be all otters. Ben and Prue are left together to see whether a match is possible between them. Having met the more polished Tattle previously, she is unhappy over Ben's rough behavior. At this, Ben becomes angry. Despite this unfortunate start, without inquiring further, Sampson and Foresight agree to marry the two the following night. Sampson is then told that Valentine is sick in bed and has begun to speak madly, which he interprets as a trick to defer signing the conveyance.

Meanwhile, Valentine's friend, Scandal, aims to sleep with Foresight's wife. Scandal suggests to the gullible husband that he has begun to look sick. Foresight believes him. He answers: "Yes, faith, I believe some women are virtuous too; but 'tis as I believe some men are valiant, through fear. For why should a man court danger or a woman shun pleasure? Meanwhile, Ben has found a more congenial companion in Mrs Frail, who warns: "Ay, but, my dear, we must keep it secret till the estate be settled; for you know, marrying without an estate is like sailing in a ship without ballast.

After quarreling with his father about Prue and thinking he is to possess Mrs Frail, Ben is stunned at hearing her cry out: "Oh, see me no more,- for thou wert born amongst rocks, suckled by whales, cradled in a tempest, and whistled to by winds; and thou art come forth with fins and scales, and three rows of teeth, a most outrageous fish of prey. Angelica discovers this pretended madness and is disappointed at finding him a fake. Meanwhile, Prue has an eye to marry Tattle, but he dismisses that idea.

On hearing of his father's match with Angelica, Valentine recovers his senses and asks his pardon, finally admitting his apparent madness was contrived. When hearing no encouragement from Angelica, he at last agrees to sign: "I have been disappointed of my only hope, and he that loses hope may part with anything. Mellefont will become the heir of his uncle, Lord Touchwood, unless the latter begets children. Receiving no encouragement from him, a frustrated Lady Touchwood contents herself instead with Maskwell, his double-dealing friend.

In front of her husband, Lady Plyant pretends to be affronted. Meanwhile, Lady Touchwood tells her husband that his nephew flirts with her. He is more genuinely helped by his other friend, Careless, to whose charms Lady Plyant has succumbed. To please her new lover, she now favors the love-match between Mellefont and Cynthia. That evening, as planned, Mellefont surprises Lady Touchwood about to go to bed with Maskwell, who rapidly escapes.

To soften Mellefont, she pretends to shed penitential tears, but then, seeing her husband enter, alerted by Maskwell to undo his pretended friend, she pretends to repulse his advances. Touchwood draws his sword and rushes at Mellefont, but is restrained by his wife. But before Maskwell can carry her away himself, his plot is discovered by Careless. To calm her rage, Maskwell seeks to defend himself.

For his part, Bellmour tells his friend, Sharper, that although he rescued Sir Joseph Wittol from robbers in the street, the frightened poltroon ran away before thanking him or even knowing who the rescuer was. Sharper seizes the opportunity by pretending to Wittol that he himself was the rescuer who lost pounds during the scuffle and so expects him to reimburse the sum. The frightened Wittol promises him the money that afternoon in the form of a letter of credit.

Though engaged in other amours, Vainlove and Bellmour have time to visit Araminta and Belinda, two coquettes willing to jeer at their proffered loves, while Heartwell does the same with Silvia. After discovering Wittol has handed over the money, his so-called protector, Captain Bluffe, is angry at him and requests him to tell Sharper that he wants the money back, but he is unwilling to.

Although Sharper thanks him for the accepted letter of credit, the two nevertheless quarrel. Sharper cuffs him while Bluffe stands rigid with fear. Instead, he continues to stand still while Sharper kicks him twice. When Heartwell attempts to seduce Silvia, she wants to be married first. Driven by lust, the old bachelor is forced to accept. With her husband about to enter the next room, Laetitia pretends to have been indecently touched by Wittol.

Since he still wants to enter the room, Laetitia tries to fob him off by saying that Spintext lies on her bed with the colic, but he discovers a lewd book of his. While the adulterer explains that Fondlewife arrived just in time to avert cuckoldry, Laetitia hangs around his neck to be forgiven, protecting from view the infatuated Bellmour who kisses her hand.

After she pretends to faint, Fondlewife yields. Still disguised as a member of the clergy, Bellmour marries Silvia to Heartwell and then reveals the secret of his identity to her, mollifying her disappointment to the false marriage by promising to find her another husband. To cheat Wittol of more money, Setter pretends to Sharper that Araminta is willing to marry him.

The befooled Wittol hands him gold to favor his design on her, as does Bluffe when he thinks Araminta willing to marry him. Pinchwife, whose nominal purity at the outset is due to lack of opportunity to sin. The progress of her corruption when she is transferred from the country to the fashionable world of London is detailed without sympathy either for the degraded wife or for the dishonoured husband. Homer, who prosecutes his vices through an assumption perhaps the most atrocious in all Restoration comedy, is Wycherley's real hero.

Ingenuity is prostituted in the service of animal license.


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Pinchwife makes her husband the bearer to Horner of the message of his own dishonour. And when, at the end of the play, Pinchwife remains unconscious of the ruin wrought, and the curtain falls to a mocking dance of cuckolds, one sees the gulf between even the lowest decadence of Elizabethan drama and what the Restoration age termed 'comedy'. But the coarseness of mind is more difficult to overlook. There is hardly any pretence that the satirist does not enjoy the state of things satirized; indeed, it is obvious that he revels in it.

Congreve saved our faces with some polite pretence as to passion; there is none in Wycherley, whose characters are given up to uncontrolled appetite. No moral laws are broken in this play, not because it takes place in fairyland, but because its author has no conception of morality. It is the one play in the whole period equal to 'The Way of the world' in completeness of expression.

It is a masterpiece, and here Wycherley did attain unity of atmosphere. It is a staggering performance and never for one instant did he swerve from his point of view. From beginning to end Wycherley saw clearly what it was he wanted to do, for now he understood that the real point of interest in Restoration society was the sex question.

Horner, the principal figure, takes a leaf out of the 'Eunuch' of Terence, and declaring himself impotent, devotes himself to living up to his name. From this we get the whole gallery of Restoration figures: the jealous man who is proved wrong to be jealous; the trusting man who is a fool to be so trusting; the light ladies concerned for their honour; the gay sparks devoted only to their pleasure; the ignorant woman seduced; the woman of common sense baffled, the only triumphant figure Horner himself, the type of all that is most unselectively lecherous, and who seems to derive such a sorry enjoyment from his success.

We never laugh at Horner, just as we never laugh at Tartuffe, though we may on occasion laugh with each of them. Both are grim, nightmare figures, dominating the helpless, hopeless apes who call themselves civilized men" pp Likewise, Wilson pointed out that "Wycherley is generally regarded first and foremost as a writer of witty dialogue, and secondly as a clever creator of character.

But in this play he proves himself also a brilliant dramatist. The three plots are interwoven with such skill that they blend perfectly into a composite whole and lead up without the least irrelevance to the ultimate climax" p Palmer pointed out that the sexual innuendoes in "The country wife" include physical facts, unlike many other plays of this and other periods p , as when Mrs Squeamish cries out to Horner: "Oh, lord, I'll have some china too. Good Mr Horner, don't think to give other people china, and me none; come in with me too. As Horner is followed by a quack doctor, he mutters to himself: "A quack is as fit for a pimp as a midwife for a bawd; they are still but in their way both helpers of nature.

Horner is surprised to learn of Pinchwife's marriage. Pinchwife defends himself by saying he made sure to marry a country wife. He and his rakish friends, Harcourt and Dorilant, guess by Pinchwife's blushing that the woman in question was his wife, Margery. Pinchwife foolishly slips out the information that his wife was much admired at the play. He ushers her out as company arrives. To Pinchwife's disgust, a man-about-town, Sparkish, extravagantly praises Alithea, his wife-to-be and Pinchwife's sister, before Harcourt's very face.

Pinchwife tries to prevent their speaking together, but is hindered by the foolishly confident Sparkish. At last, Alithea runs towards Sparkish to disclose that Harcourt insulted his wit, which at last arouses him, until she declares he only made trial to be satisfied of her virtue for his sake. Jasper's wife, Lady Fidget, arrives to take Margery to the play along with Dainty Fidget and Mrs Squeamish, which Pinchwife prevents by saying she has the smallpox: an ineffective ploy because they all have had it and consider themselves immune.

Jasper invites Horner to follow them, who, taking Lady Fidget apart from the rest, whispers to her his true condition, a far more pleasing prospect to her now. To prevent the worst, Pinchwife insists on having his wife disguised in man's clothes, while Harcourt requests Sparkish to reconcile him to his future wife, the best method for friends to remain so. Despite Alithea's concern about Sparkish's honor, he retorts still with confidence: "That he makes love to you is a sign you are handsome, and that I am not jealous is a sign you are virtuous.

Is it not a frank age? While Pinchwife goes out to find a coach, Horner takes the disguised Margery away, who returns a little later running back with her hat full of oranges and dried fruit under her arm, a sight which makes the husband rub his forehead, wearing he has become a cuckold. In preparation of their wedding ceremony, Sparkish presents Alithea to a man he thinks is Harcourt's brother and a chaplain but is actually Harcourt himself, not a chaplain.

Meanwhile, Pinchwife's thorough interrogation reveals that Horner did no more than force his tongue between Margery's teeth. Nevertheless, Pinchwife insists on her writing Horner an insulting letter to discourage him in the future. He dictates a very insulting one, which she mitigates in softer tones. Meanwhile, Jasper catches his wife, Lady Fidget, at Horner's house. She pretends to look for china pieces. While she is in the adjoining room and Horner on the way, Jasper calls out to warn her: "My Lady Fidget!

He is coming in to you the back way" to which she answers: "Let him come, and welcome, which way he will. He angrily draws his sword on her, but is prevented from doing harm by Sparkish, who invites him to his wedding dinner. When Pinchwife returns, Margery lies by saying she wrote the letter on behalf of his sister.

He leads away what he thinks is Alithea but is actually his wife disguised, towards Horner's house, with a parson to follow soon after, then shows the letter to the disappointed Sparkish, who angrily repudiates the disillusioned Alithea. When Pinchwife arrives to marry Alithea to Horner, Margery, unwilling to lose him, discovers her true feelings, at which Pinchwide offers to draw his sword on Horner, but is prevented by Harcourt and eased in mind when Jasper and others explain Horner's supposed impotence, so that all may end happily with a dance of cuckolds.

Before the arrival of Sir Fopling in the middle of the play, most scenes are private ones in which the major characters, Dorimant, Loveit, and Harriet, are seen and heard facing the private mirror of their dressing room. They are all getting ready for the public meetings in the Mall, at Lady Townley's masquerade, in her drawing-room.

Seeing and being seen in public and conversely, not being seen in private comprised that society's major activity, and Sir Fopling, who only exists when seen, can understandably rejoice that "all the world will be in the park tonight" III. In "The man of mode", "two points are striking: its extremely slight intrigues and its emphasis on display of character Within this almost static plot we find four loci of interest: 1 Fopling, who has no necessary connection to any other part of the play; 2 Dorimant's affairs with Loveit and Bellinda; 3 The courtship of Dorimant and Harriet; 4 The marriage of Young Bellair and Emilia.

For these last two, Lady Woodvill, Old Bellair, and Lady Townley provide some slight interconnections, but the parental opposition is utterly pro forma: Old Bellair gives in to his son's marriage and accepts his own disappointment with hardly a murmur, while Harriet's mother is so charmed by Dorimant posing as "Mr Courtage that she drops her objections to him.

Seldom has the course of true love run so smooth. Indeed, the story is incredibly thin, and its pieces are only loosely patched together. Not only is Fopling irrelevant to the action, but the Young Bellair-Emilia plot has little factual connection to the two involving Dorimant, which in turn are almost independent of each" Hume, p 2.

In mounting progression he breaks through each definition, because each is false, until he comes to the final true challenge, which is Harriet's. We are presented successively with love as simple appetite or commodity Molly the true-bred whore whose appeal the fastidious Dorimant has long since outgrown; love as power over the other and the attempt to arrest nature's mutability by outworn language and oath Mrs Loveit , love as deception and self-deception Bellinda , and finally love as self-knowledge and surrender to Fate Harriet " Zimbardo, p Its hero Dorimant is an erotic who is as witty as he is unscrupulous; Sir Fopling Flutter, newly come from France, is the dernier cri of fashionableness; and the women carry no impedimenta of modesty.

Even the charming Harriet who wears down the resistance of her Dorimant to the point of marriage is an unconventional heroine" p Sir Fopling Flutter lately arrived piping hot from Paris, with six footmen with French names, with French phrases at his tongue's end, and French dances at the tips of his toes, is one of the most notable character types of Restoration comedy. The Man of Mode reflects the usual contempt for the country. Dorimant asserts to Harriet as the highest proof of his affection that to be with her he could live in the country 'and never send one thought to London'.

But Harriet cannot believe the incredible: 'Whate'er you say,' she rejoins, 'I know all beyond High Park's a desert to you, and that no gallantry can draw you farther' V, 2. She herself, however, is even willing to be 'mewed up in the country again. Many of Harriet's scenes are typical of Etherege's piquant dialogue, such as that in which she makes light of Dorimant's advances IV, i , or the one III, i where she and Young Bellair pretend love to deceive their parents, a situation not unlike that in Goldsmith's She Stoops to Conquer, where Tony Lumpkin and Miss Neville deceive Mrs Hardcastle by pretended billing and cooing The intrinsic value of Etherege's work is lessened, to be sure, by obvious dramatic defects.

He is weak in plot construction and in dramatic action; lacking deep emotional power, he glosses over shallowness with a superficial veneer of easy flippancy; he turns comedy, from lashing vice with ridicule, to laughter at sin as well as at folly" pp Sir Fopling Flutter "merely apes the smartness of the time" and is set in contrast with Dorimant, "the man of true wit and perfect fashion" Palmer, p He is the most delicately and sympathetically drawn of all the fops in the great series of coxcombs.

He is in himself a delight, presented from pure joy of him, and is not set up merely as a target for the raillery of wiser fools. Unlike Vanbrugh's Lord Foppington, he has no intellectual idea behind his appearance. Moreover, all the people around him enjoy him as much as Etherege himself so evidently did. Life would be the duller without him, and so his existence is justified. He must even be encouraged Sir Fopling is not for a moment the fatuous ass Vanbrugh's Lord Foppington becomes He presented and avoided awakening the critical spirit.

Sir Fopling was to him what a rare orchid is to an enthusiastic gardener, a precious specimen, and the finger of satire must not be allowed to touch him To attempt to deduce a lesson from him is as fruitful as to seek a symbol in a primrose, a meaning in the contours of a cloud" pp Lady Townley and her niece, Emilia, are apprehensive after learning that old Bellair has obtained lodgings in the house where they live, Emilia being the mistress of his son and his cousin, because the father wishes his son to marry Harriet Woodvill, a woman of greater fortune.

To cheer up his glum-looking son, old Bellair assures him: "A wife is no curse when she brings the blessing of a good estate with her. Meanwhile, two mistresses of a young rake named Dorimant, Bellinda and Mrs Loveit, confer together. With Dorimant's approval, Bellinda misleads her rival by saying she saw him at a play flirting with a masked woman. When Dorimant enters, an angry Mrs Loveit accuses him of treachery, to which he retorts: "I am honest in my inclinations, and would not, were't not to avoid offence, make a lady a little in years believe I think her young, willfully mistake art for nature, and seem as fond of a thing I am weary of as when I doted on't in earnest.

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In turn, he accuses her of flirting with Sir Fopling Flutter, a man of mode, but one she hates. For her part, Harriet has no wish to marry young Bellair any more than he does, and so they join hands in agreeing to pretend loving each other until they can get out of it. Dorimant next visits Lady Townley and Emilia, followed by Flutter, all the clothes of the latter being of French make.

To free himself from Mrs Loveit, Dorimant assures Flutter that the woman likes him. To help young Bellair, Harriet intends that her mother see her with Dorimant. As mother and daughter pass by, Dorimant recognizes Harriet as the masked woman at the play and speaks with her a second time in front of her nervous mother. To make Dorimant jealous, Mrs Loveit intends to flirt with Flutter, which alarms Bellinda, who tries to dissuade her from that. Mrs Loveit assures her that her strategy is sound. But I design not so much the reviving his, as my revenge.

Notes his friend and bawd, Medley: "But I have known men fall into dangerous relapses when they have found a woman inclining to another. He criticizes the young. At the same party, old Bellair dances up to Emilia, unaware yet of his son's relation with her.

Meanwhile, Dorimant begins to feel an attraction to Harriet in earnest, but she gently rejects his advances. After lying in bed with Dorimant, Bellinda is nevertheless still anxious of losing him. She enjoins him to see Mrs Loveit only in public places. Meanwhile, young Bellair has grown convinced that Harriet loves Dorimant. She laughs at all who commend you; but then she speaks ill of all who do not. Still wearied of her, Dorimant gives Mrs Loveit her letters back, but yet she manages to hold on to him still.

When Bellinda sees them together, Dorimant grows pale and can only escape pitifully. Young Bellair and Emilia marry in secret just as his father arrives to marry him to Harriet. Dorimant hears of this and offers his service. As old Bellair and his son encounter Smirk the chaplain, the latter is sure the father must be mistaken, for he has just married his son to another woman.

On learning this, old Bellair offers Emilia his hand, but it is Emilia his son married. When Dorimant sees Mrs Loveit and Bellinda arrive together, he becomes all the more anxious. To Lady Woodvill's astonishment, Mrs Loveit reveals that her daughter has been suspiciously been near Dorimant all this time. Yet Mrs Loveit and Bellinda now see they have lost Dorimant altogether. Instead, he promises to visit Harriet and her mother in the country. The writings of John Vanbrugh achieve their maximal impact in "The relapse" Neither Leigh Hunt who called him 'the quintessence of nullification' nor Hazlitt who wrote of him as 'the personification of the foppery and folly of dress and appearance in full feather', quite do him justice.

For at bottom he is a very sound man of business, and it is this that makes him a creation of Vanbrugh's and not a mere imitation of Sir Fopling, Sir Courtly, and Sir Novelty. He deliberately aims at absurdity because it pays, and he is proud to be the leader of the coxcombs because they form 'so prevailing a party'. All this is well carried out. One never knows what he is going to say, but once spoken, one realizes it is the only thing he could have said.

From Cibber, Vanbrugh has taken the general idea of the fop and some specific touches. In Cibber, Sir Novelty is described as 'one that heaven intended for a man; but the whole business of his life is to make the world believe he is of another species' Act I. Cibber's character amuses for the moment; Vanbrugh's has permanent vitality.



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