The result was apartheid, a legislative program that made the South African government one of the most oppressive of the 20th century. The End of Apartheid in South Africa describes the impact apartheid had on South African society and the emergence of the powerful protest movement that sought to combat it. Anti-apartheid leaders such as Stephen Biko and Nelson Mandela inspired a worldwide campaign against the South African government. This internal and external struggle brought a peaceful end to apartheid in , and in the process, transformed South Africa from an international pariah into a modern democracy.
Under Dutch and British Rule. The Seeds of Apartheid. By , when the last federal soldiers left the South and Reconstruction drew to a close, blacks had seen dishearteningly little improvement in their economic and social status, and what political gains they had made had been wiped away by the vigorous efforts of white supremacist forces throughout the region. On May 18, , the U.
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Supreme Court issued its verdict in Plessy vs. By an 8—1 majority, the Court upheld a Louisiana law that required the segregation of passengers on railroad cars. Plessy v. Board of Education. As the 19th century came to an end and segregation took ever—stronger hold in the South, many African Americans saw self—improvement, especially through education, as the single greatest opportunity to escape the indignities they suffered.
Many blacks looked to Booker T. Washington , the author of the bestselling Up From Slavery , as an inspiration. By , peanuts had become the second cash crop in the South. Like Washington, Carver had little interest in racial politics, and was celebrated by many white Americans as a shining example of a modest, industrious black man.
While Washington and Carver represented a philosophy of accommodation to white supremacy, another prominent black educator, the Harvard—trained historian and sociologist W. Du Bois, became a leading voice in the growing black protest movement during the first half of the 20th century. In June , a group led by the prominent black educator W. Du Bois met at Niagara Falls , Canada, sparking a new political protest movement to demand civil rights for blacks, in the old spirit of abolitionism.
A wave of race riots—particularly one in Springfield, Illinois in —lent a sense of urgency to the Niagara Movement and its supporters, who in joined their agenda with that of a new permanent civil rights organization, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP. One of its earliest programs was a crusade against lynching and other lawless acts; those efforts—including a nationwide protest of D.
Garvey appealed to the racial pride of African Americans, exalting blackness as strong and beautiful. Their only hope, according to him, was to flee America and return to Africa to build a country of their own. After an unsuccessful appeal to the League of Nations to settle a colony in Africa and failed negotiations with Liberia, Garvey announced the formation of the Empire of Africa in , with himself as provisional president.
Other African—American leaders, notably W. In , the U. After serving a two—year jail sentence, Garvey was pardoned by President Calvin Coolidge and immediately deported; he died in London in In the s, the great migration of blacks from the rural South to the urban North sparked an African—American cultural renaissance that took its name from the New York City neighborhood of Harlem but became a widespread movement in cities throughout the North and West.
Also known as the Black Renaissance or the New Negro Movement, the Harlem Renaissance marked the first time that mainstream publishers and critics turned their attention seriously to African—American literature, music, art and politics. Its influence had stretched around the world, opening the doors of mainstream culture to black artists and writers.
More than 3 million blacks would register for service during the war, with some , seeing action overseas. According to War Department policy, enlisted blacks and whites were organized into separate units. Frustrated black servicemen were forced to combat racism even as they sought to further U. West Virginia , carried wounded crewmembers to safety and manned a machine gun post, shooting down several Japanese planes. In the spring of , graduates of the first all—black military aviation program, created at the Tuskegee Institute in , headed to North Africa as the 99th Pursuit Squadron. Their commander, Captain Benjamin O.
Davis Jr. The Tuskegee Airmen saw combat against German and Italian troops, flew more than 3, missions, and served as a great source of pride for many blacks in America. Aside from celebrated accomplishments like these, overall gains were slow, and maintaining high morale among black forces was difficult due to the continued discrimination they faced. In July , President Harry S. Truman finally integrated the U. By , the unwritten color line barring blacks from white teams in professional baseball was strictly enforced.
Army he earned an honorable discharge after facing a court—martial for refusing to move to the back of a segregated bus. His play caught the attention of Branch Rickey, general manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers, who had been considering bringing an end to segregation in baseball.
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Rickey signed Robinson to a Dodgers farm team that same year and two years later moved him up, making Robinson the first African—American player to play on a major league team. Robinson played his first game with the Dodgers on April 15, ; he led the National League in stolen bases that season, earning Rookie of the Year honors. Over the next nine years, Robinson compiled a.
Despite his success on the field, however, he encountered hostility from both fans and other players. Members of the St. Louis Cardinals even threatened to strike if Robinson played; baseball commissioner Ford Frick settled the question by threatening to suspend any player who went on strike. His groundbreaking achievement transcended sports, however: As soon as he signed the contract with Rickey, Robinson became one of the most visible African Americans in the country, and a figure that blacks could look to as a source of pride, inspiration and hope.
As his success and fame grew, Robinson began speaking out publicly for black equality. On May 17, , the U. Supreme Court delivered its verdict in Brown v. Constitution to any person within its jurisdiction. Oliver Brown, the lead plaintiff in the case, was one of almost people from five different states who had joined related NAACP cases brought before the Supreme Court since Ferguson , in which it determined that equal protection was not violated as long as reasonably equal conditions were provided to both groups.
In August , a 14—year—old black boy from Chicago named Emmett Till had recently arrived in Money, Mississippi to visit relatives.
While in a grocery store, he allegedly whistled and made a flirtatious remark to the white woman behind the counter, violating the strict racial codes of the Jim Crow South. After beating the boy, they shot him to death and threw his body in the Tallahatchie River.
The two men confessed to kidnapping Till but were acquitted of murder charges by an all—white, all—male jury after barely an hour of deliberations. Thousands of mourners attended, and Jet magazine published a photo of the corpse. On December 1, , an African—American woman named Rosa Parks was riding a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama when the driver told her to give up her seat to a white man.
I had decided that I would have to know once and for all what rights I had as a human being and a citizen.
About 90 boycotters, including King, were indicted under a law forbidding conspiracy to obstruct the operation of a business. Found guilty, King immediately appealed the decision. Meanwhile, the boycott stretched on for more than a year, and the bus company struggled to avoid bankruptcy. On November 13, , in Browder v. Gayle, the U. Although the Supreme Court declared segregation of public schools illegal in Brown v. Board of Education , the decision was extremely difficult to enforce, as 11 southern states enacted resolutions interfering with, nullifying or protesting school desegregation.
In Arkansas, Governor Orval Faubus made resistance to desegregation a central part of his successful reelection campaign. The following September, after a federal court ordered the desegregation of Central High School, located in the state capital of Little Rock, Faubus called out the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine African—American students from entering the school.
For millions of viewers throughout the country, the unforgettable images provided a vivid contrast between the angry forces of white supremacy and the quiet, dignified resistance of the African—American students. After an appeal by the local congressman and mayor of Little Rock to stop the violence, President Dwight D. The nine black students entered the school under heavily armed guard, marking the first time since Reconstruction that federal troops had provided protection for black Americans against racial violence.
A federal court struck down this act, and four of the nine students returned, under police protection, after the schools were reopened in Heavily covered by the news media, the Greensboro sit—ins sparked a movement that spread quickly to college towns throughout the South and into the North, as young blacks and whites engaged in various forms of peaceful protest against segregation in libraries, on beaches, in hotels and other establishments. Rap Brown. By the early s, SNCC was effectively disbanded.
Founded in by the civil rights leader James Farmer, the Congress of Racial Equality CORE sought to end discrimination and improve race relations through direct action. Supreme Court banned segregation in interstate bus travel. In Boynton v. Virginia , the Court extended the earlier ruling to include bus terminals, restrooms and other related facilities, and CORE took action to test the enforcement of that ruling. Bound for New Orleans , the freedom riders were attacked by angry segregationists outside of Anniston, Alabama, and one bus was even firebombed.
Local law enforcement responded, but slowly, and U. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy eventually ordered State Highway Patrol protection for the freedom riders to continue to Montgomery, Alabama, where they again encountered violent resistance. Kennedy sent federal marshals to escort the riders to Jackson, Mississippi, but images of the bloodshed made the worldwide news, and the freedom rides continued.
By the end of the s, African Americans had begun to be admitted in small numbers to white colleges and universities in the South without too much incident. With the aid of the NAACP, Meredith filed a lawsuit alleging that the university had discriminated against him because of his race.
In September , the U. When Meredith arrived at Ole Miss under the protection of federal forces including U. Meredith went on to graduate from Ole Miss in , but the struggle to integrate higher education continued. The Collapse of the Soviet Union.
The Congress of Vienna. The Cuban Revolution.
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The End of Apartheid in South Africa. The Establishment of the State of Israel. The French Revolution and the Rise of Napoleon. The Great Irish Famine. The Indian Independence Act of