Maintaining precipitation recycling could prevent degradation of rainfall-dependent terrestrial ecosystems and has the potential to minimize blue-water trade-offs between up- and downstream water users within the Amazon Basin. We present a review of how transport and fate of micropollutants, i.
Hereby, transport relevant processes are presented and which compounds and which of their properties can be studied with column experiments. We discuss advantages of this laboratory method and show weaknesses and problems. The country of Myanmar and its abundant water resources are facing major challenges due to political and economic reforms, massive investments from neighbouring countries and climate change impacts.
Publications on current and future impacts from human activities and climate change on Myanmar's river basins have been reviewed in order to gain an overview of the key drivers in these human—water dynamics. The review reveals the relevance of this information with regard to human—water interactions. This paper reviews literature surrounding many aspects of socio-hydrological modelling; this includes a background to the subject of socio-hydrology, reasons why socio-hydrological modelling would be used, what is to be modelled in socio-hydrology and concepts that underpin this, as well as several modelling techniques and how they may be applied in socio-hydrology.
This review paper investigates the determinants of modelling choices for numerous applications of 1-D free-surface flow and morphodynamics in hydrology and hydraulics. Each case study has a signature composed of given contexts spatiotemporal scales, flow typology, and phenomenology and chosen concepts refinement and subscales of the flow model.
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This review proposes a normative procedure possibly enriched by the community for a larger, comprehensive and updated image of modelling strategies. This paper explores the benefits and advantages of R's usage in hydrology. We provide an overview of a typical hydrological workflow based on reproducible principles and packages for retrieval of hydro-meteorological data, spatial analysis, hydrological modelling, statistics, and the design of static and dynamic visualizations and documents. The notion of a measure to quantify the degree of heterogeneity of a region from which information is required to estimate the magnitude of events at ungauged sites is introduced.
These heterogeneity measures are needed to compare regions, evaluate the impact of particular sites, and rank the performance of delineating methods. A framework to define and assess their desirable properties is proposed. This article presents the most important facts on the life and scientific achievements of Steponas Kolupaila — — one of the most famous hydrologists of the 20th century.
This Lithuanian scientist is especially well known for his book Bibliography of Hydrometry. Hunke et al. This paper present the results of interviews that were conducted with the developers of apps dedicated to avalanche risk communication. The study investigates the context of their development to determine how choices of content and visualization were made as well as how their effectiveness is evaluated.
Results show that consensus is achieved in terms of message but not in terms of visualization. However, progress remains in terms of effectiveness evaluation. This paper makes a rather exhaustive overview of current knowledge of past, current, and future aspects of cryospheric issues in continental Europe and makes a number of reflections of areas of uncertainty requiring more attention in both scientific and policy terms. The review paper is completed by a bibliography containing recent references that will certainly be of value to scholars engaged in the fields of glacier, snow, and permafrost research.
We review what can be inferred about permafrost in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya region. This is important because the area of permafrost exceeds that of glaciers in this region. Climate change will produce diverse permafrost-related impacts on vegetation, water quality, geohazards, and livelihoods. To mitigate this, a better understanding of high-elevation permafrost in subtropical latitudes as well as the pathways connecting environmental change and human livelihoods, is needed.
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Martino et al. Paoletti, Nat. Parish et al. Masci and J. Thomas, Nat. Robinson and T. Davies, Nat. In this study, TEC and positional variations have been examined seperately regarding the earthquake, which occurred in the Aegean Sea. Then The correlation of the said ionospheric variation with the positional variation has been investigated; it can be said definitely that it is a seismic origin anomaly; it is believed that upper air, geophysical, and geological data are required.
Mandea et al. Geo Space.
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Glassmeier and B. Tsurutani, Hist. Ptitsyna and A. Altamore, Hist. Egeland and W. Burke, Hist. Egeland and C. Deehr, Hist. About years ago in Sir James Hall made his famous analogue experiments, which showed probably for the first time that natural folds in ductile rock are the result of a horizontal compression. If such rocks are extended, then the rock layers can thin only locally, which is a process termed necking, and the resulting structure is often termed pinch-and-swell.
We review here theoretical and experimental results on folding and necking on all geological scales. The seismo-electromagnetic method is used for non-invasive subsurface exploration, showing interesting results for detecting fluids such as water, oil, gas, CO 2 , or ice, and to better characterize the subsurface in terms of porosity, permeability, and fractures. We describe theoretical background, the role of key parameters, recent theoretical and numerical developments, and field and laboratory observations to show that this method can bring advantages compared to classical geophysical method.
This paper introduces a new method for mapping electric fields in the magnetosphere along geomagnetic field lines. This is important for conjugate studies of electric fields measured in the ionosphere by SuperDARN radars, and at spacecraft carrying electric field probes.
Pienza (UNESCO World Heritage), Italy tours & activities, fun things to do in Italy | VELTRA
First elementary methods in a dipole field are reviewed and then the theory of of a new method described for general magnetic field models. The method is tested in a dipole model with a Harris magnetotail field. The method of electric field mapping along geomagnetic field lines, derived in an accompanying paper, is applied to the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. Formulae for the geomagnetic field gradient tensor are derived and these are used in a software package developed to map the electric field. A number of examples are presented illustrating the method. The method will be of importance in conjugate studies of ionospheric convection when the external magnetic field can be neglected.
Moldwin et al. A significant number of studies published over the last 15 years demonstrate that there is strong two-way coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere during geomagnetic activity; not only does the ionosphere respond to magnetospheric forcing during storms, but through its impact on wave generation, wave-particle interactions, ion outflow and mass loading at the dayside magnetopause and in the magnetotail, dense plasma plumes modulate the subsequent magnetospheric dynamics.
The behaviour of mirror mode waves in Venus's magnetosheath is investigated for solar minimum and maximum conditions. It is shown that the total observational rate of these waves does not change much; however, the distribution over the magnetosheath is significantly different, as well as the growth and decay of the waves during these different solar activity conditions. Celestial mechanics of the Earth The Moon. Kronberg et al. Volwerk et al. Cowley et al. Bonfond et al. Bunce et al. Cowley and E. Bunce, Ann. Woodfield et al. Giampieri and M. Dougherty, Ann. Morooka et al.
Simon et al. Ceres Pluto Eris. The solar wind density increases and with that the pressure, which compresses the magnetosphere, increasing the magnetic field strength near Rosetta. The higher solar wind density also creates more ionization through collisions with the gas from the comet. Galactic cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outside of the solar system.
The products of their interaction with the atmosphere are counted by a network of neutron monitors. The number of cosmic rays reaching Earth is affected by the magnetic field embedded in the solar wind. The result is a number of regular variations in the neutron monitor data, including a diurnal variation.
Saito et al. In situ spacecraft data in space plasma are obtained often as time series data. Using Taylor's frozen-in flow hypothesis, one can interpret the time series data as spatial variations swept by the slow and passing by the spacecraft. A quantitative method for estimating the error for Taylor's hypothesis is developed here.
Cantrell, Atmos. Djalante, Nat. Bostenaru Dan, Nat. Gamper, Nat. Foodspotting by Foodspotting, Inc. It's not about where you ate; it's about what you ate. This app focuses on food, not restaurants.
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Enjoy a visual catalog of millions of dishes that people, including professionals such as Wolfgang Puck and the crews from Chow and the Travel Channel, have savored across the globe. You can follow friends and professionals alike as they travel the world and sample specialties from different countries, and if you have a craving for a particular food, just search for the dish and see which restaurant serves up the best version of it.
You can upload your own photos to let others know what you thought about different dishes, and you can connect with other Foodspotters on Instagram, as well. Download Foodspotting from or City Papers by Yoctoville. With an extensive cache of English language newspapers — about 3, — from across the globe, City Papers allows you to stay informed about world news or hometown happenings. You can search for newspapers based on region, country or city, or you can find them by using a map.
Then, the app lets you bookmark your favorites for quick reference.
If you want to share an article with friends or family, City Papers offers a variety of options; you can send it via email or text message or post it to Twitter, Facebook and other social media sites. Is your favorite paper missing? Contact Yoctoville, and the company might add it to its inventory with the app's next software upgrade.
Download City Papers from. This app is not available on Android devices. This app allows you to access information about each of these treasured sites from the palm of your hand. Search for sites near your destination, and bookmark sites you want to visit or already have experienced. Entrain by the University of Michigan. Jetlag can be a real drag on your vacation. Changing time zones messes with your sleep schedule, but Entrain aims to get you back to a normal schedule as soon as possible, allowing you to make the most of your vacation.
How does it work? This service always has been helpful, but a recent update makes it a necessity when traveling to a country that speaks a language in which you are not fluent. You can type, write, speak or, in some cases, snap a picture of what you want to translate, and you do not need a wireless Internet connection; the service also works offline.
However, the other translation features — writing, conversing and typing — work with myriad languages, including Arabic, Bengali, Danish, Finnish, Greek, Hindi, Japanese, Latin and others. The translation is not always perfect; however, in most cases, you can find out what you need to know or what you want to say, and the app likely will only get better with time. Awesome group of people and great hosts. Becky was a great tour guide! Super sweet and educated us alll on the culture and history behind Tuscany.
The trip was amazing and as my first time going to Italy I was blown away by the beauty of Tuscany. Definitely recommend this tour if anyone is considering!! The whole trip was excellent. Our guide, Chiara, was so full of information about wine and grapes, and the region in general, she was like a walking encyclopedia! She also had an excellent sense of humour! I highly recommend this trip! Tiffany was great! Interesting and entertaining commentary about the cultural history of Tuscany. Beautiful tour with an amazing lunch at the vineyard. The Abbey of Sant'Antimo was also a highlight of the day.
Thanks for a perfect day. This was one of the best tours that I have been on, Julia was very knowledgeable. The bus driver, who I am sorry I can not remember her name, was incredible. Would definitly recommend this tour, well worth the money. Tiffani was great! Not only did she do a wonderful job with the tour but also helped recommend some great places to eat after the tour was over. She was smart, fun, and professional. We had a great time! Knowledgable and friendly. She also had great English.
Stefania was also a very good guide. She knows a lot about the area, and made our stop in the town even better. We are glad that we had her for an hour, she helped us understand that beautiful town. Lindy is an amazing guide she is extremely knowledgable and entertaining. We had a great day in Tuscany with her. Beautiful scenery , great lunch and wine , one of the best tours I have taken. Violet was terrific.
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She was very knowledgeable! I would definitely recommend her! She was patient and answered everyone's questions about Rome and different things to do! Loved it! Would highly recommend - only issue was not being able to shop at the first stop, where there were many shops that I would have liked to make purchases. Andy was a great guide! We had a great time. The wine was delicious, as well as the food. The scenery was breathtaking, and we learned a lot. Seemed a bit distant. But very knowledgeable. He is a good ambassador for the town. Would have liked more than 5 min to wander I. The stops.
We had limited time in Rome but loved the trip to Tuscany. Get away from the crowds and enjoy. Guide was knowledgable and friendly. Great value for money! An unexpected error has occurred. Please go back to the previous page and try again, or wait a few minutes and try once again. Welcome Guest! Sign in. Europe 2, Italy Pienza 3. Was this comment helpful? Worth it!